Have you ever found yourself searching for a logistics or shipping term while in the midst of a conversation or meeting?
The world of logistics is filled with its own unique language and acronyms that can be challenging to navigate. Whether you're an industry veteran or just starting out, staying up-to-date with the latest terminology is essential.
Introducing our comprehensive Logistics Terms Glossary, where you'll find definitions for thousands and shipping terms. From supply chain management to transportation modes and everything in between, we've got you covered.
No more guessing or frantically Googling during important discussions – our glossary is your go-to resource.
Explore the world of logistics with confidence as we break down complex concepts and demystify industry jargon. Whether you're a logistics professional, a student, or simply curious about the field, this glossary will empower you with knowledge and help you stay ahead.
Let's embark on a journey of understanding as we dive into the depths of logistics terminology. Here are the key logistics terms you need to know:
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ABC Model: A framework used to analyze and categorize inventory or customers based on their value, importance, or consumption patterns to guide decision-making and resource allocation.
ABC System: A system that utilizes ABC analysis to manage inventory, customers, or activities by classifying them into groups based on their relative importance or value.
ABI: An abbreviation for Automated Broker Interface, which is an electronic interface that enables customs brokers to electronically transmit data to customs authorities.
Absorption Costing: A costing method that assigns both direct and indirect costs to products or services, taking into account all production-related expenses.
Accelerated Commercial Release Operations Support System (ACROSS): An electronic system used by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) to process and release commercial shipments efficiently.
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL): The maximum level of defects or errors considered acceptable in a batch or lot of products during a quality inspection.
Acceptable Sampling Plan: A predetermined set of rules and criteria used to determine the number of items to be inspected from a batch or lot for quality control purposes.
Acceptance Number: The maximum number of defects or errors allowed in a sample without rejecting the entire batch or lot during acceptance sampling.
Acceptance Sampling: A quality control technique that involves inspecting a random sample of items from a batch or lot to determine if it meets the predetermined quality standards.
Accessibility: The ease of reaching or obtaining goods, services, or information, often associated with physical or digital infrastructure and availability.
Accessorial Charges: Additional charges or fees applied to a shipment or transportation service beyond the base rate, such as handling fees, storage fees, or fuel surcharges.
Accountability: The responsibility and obligation to provide an account or justification for one's actions, decisions, or performance.
Accounts Payable (A/P): The amount of money owed by a company to its suppliers or creditors for goods or services received but not yet paid for.
Accounts Receivable (A/R): The amount of money owed to a company by its customers or clients for goods or services provided on credit but not yet received.
Accredited Standards Committee (ASC): A committee responsible for developing and maintaining industry standards, often related to product quality, safety, or performance.
Accumulation Bin: A designated storage location where items are collected or accumulated before being moved or processed further in the warehouse or production facility.
ACD: Automatic Call Distribution, a telephony system that automatically distributes incoming calls to a group of call center agents based on predefined rules or algorithms.
Acquisition Cost: The total cost incurred to acquire an asset, including purchase price, taxes, shipping, installation, and any other relevant expenses.
Action Message: A system-generated notification or instruction that prompts a specific action or response from individuals or systems involved in logistics or supply chain operations.
Administrative Monetary Penalty System (AMPS): A system implemented by customs authorities to enforce compliance with customs regulations through the imposition of monetary penalties for violations.
Ad Valorem Duty: A type of customs duty or tax imposed on imported or exported goods based on their declared value, usually calculated as a percentage of the goods' value.
Advance Material Request: A formal request or notification submitted by a department or individual within an organization to request the procurement or release of materials in advance of their actual need.
Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS): A computer-based system or software that utilizes algorithms and mathematical models to optimize production planning, scheduling, and resource allocation.
Advanced Shipment Notice (ASN): A notification sent by a supplier to a customer in advance of a shipment's arrival, providing detailed information about the contents, quantities, and delivery schedule.
Agency Tariff: A schedule of rates and charges established by a transportation agency or authority for the services they provide.
Agent: A representative or intermediary who acts on behalf of another party in a business transaction or arrangement, often providing services such as customs clearance, freight forwarding, or sales representation.
Aggregate Tender Rate: The combined or overall rate quoted for a group of shipments or a specific trade lane, encompassing multiple individual shipments or consignments.
Agility: The ability of a system, organization, or supply chain to quickly adapt, respond, or recover in the face of changing conditions, disruptions, or customer demands.
Air Cargo: Goods or freight transported by aircraft, typically in dedicated cargo planes or in the cargo holds of passenger aircraft.
Air Cargo Agent: An intermediary or service provider that specializes in handling and arranging air cargo shipments on behalf of shippers or consignees.
Air Cargo Containers: Specialized containers or units designed to hold and transport air cargo safely and efficiently, often conforming to specific dimensions and regulations.
Air Carrier: A company or airline that provides air transportation services for passengers, cargo, or mail.
Airport and Airway Trust Fund: A fund established to finance and support the development, maintenance, and improvement of airports and airway infrastructure in the United States.
Air Taxi: A small aircraft used for on-demand, short-distance air transportation of passengers or cargo, often operating on unscheduled flights.
Air Waybill (AWB): A document issued by an airline or freight forwarder that serves as a contract of carriage and provides details about a shipment, including origin, destination, contents, and handling instructions.
All-Cargo Carrier: An airline or transportation company that specializes in carrying only cargo or freight, without offering passenger services.
Allocation: The process of assigning or distributing resources, such as inventory, funds, or production capacity, to specific purposes, locations, or activities.
All Water: A shipping service or route that involves the transportation of goods exclusively by water, without any transshipment or intermodal transfer.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI): A private, non-profit organization that oversees the development and accreditation of voluntary consensus standards in various industries and sectors.
American Society of Transportation & Logistics: A professional organization that promotes education,.
American Trucking Associations: A trade association representing the interests of the trucking industry in the United States, advocating for policies, safety regulations, and industry standards.
American Waterway Operators: A trade association representing the U.S. tugboat, towboat, and barge industry, promoting safe and efficient inland waterway transportation.
Amtrak: The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a U.S. government-owned corporation that operates intercity passenger rail services in the United States.
Anti-Dumping Duty: A tariff or duty imposed on imported goods that are sold at a lower price in the importing country, often to protect domestic industries from unfair competition.
Any-Quantity (AQ) rate: A freight rate or pricing structure that applies to shipments of any quantity or size, often used for smaller shipments or less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments.
APU: Auxiliary Power Unit, a self-contained power source or generator used in aircraft to provide electricity, air conditioning, and other functions when the main engines are not running.
AQL: Acceptable Quality Level, the maximum number or percentage of defects or non-conforming items that is considered acceptable in a batch or lot during quality control inspections.
A/R: Abbreviation for Accounts Receivable, representing the amount of money owed to a company by its customers or clients for goods or services provided on credit.
Arrival Notice: A notification or document sent to the consignee or recipient of a shipment to inform them of its arrival, providing details about its location, expected delivery, or any required actions.
Artificial Intelligence: A branch of computer science that focuses on creating intelligent machines or systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as problem-solving, learning, and decision-making.
AS/RS: Automated Storage and Retrieval System, a computer-controlled system used in warehouses or distribution centers to automatically store, retrieve, and manage inventory or materials.
Assemble to Order: A manufacturing or production strategy where products are not produced until a customer order is received, allowing for customization or configuration based on specific customer requirements.
Association of American Railroads: A trade association representing the major freight railroads in North America, promoting the interests of the rail industry and providing industry statistics and standards.
ATA: Abbreviation for Actual Time of Arrival, referring to the estimated or predicted time when a shipment or transport vehicle is expected to arrive at its destination.
ATD: Abbreviation for Actual Time of Departure, indicating the estimated or recorded time when a shipment or transport vehicle actually departs from its origin or starting point.
ATFI: Abbreviation for Automated Tariff Filing Information, a system used by U.S. customs authorities to receive and process electronic filings of import and export data.
ATP: Abbreviation for Available to Promise, a concept or measurement used in production planning and scheduling to determine the quantity of a product.
Attributes: Characteristics or properties of a product, service, or object that define its qualities, features, or specifications.
Audit: In reference to freight bills, the term audit is used to determine the accuracy of freight bills.
Auditing: Determining the correct transportation charges due the carrier; auditing involves checking the freight bill for errors, correct rate, and weight.
Audit Trail: A chronological record or documentation that provides a step-by-step account of transactions, activities, or events, often used for tracing and verifying the integrity of financial or operational processes.
Automated Broker Interface (ABI): A system that allows customs brokers to electronically transmit and receive information to and from U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) for clearance of imported goods.
Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS): A system that uses computer-controlled vehicles or robots to transport and move materials or products within a facility or warehouse without human intervention.
Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS): A computer-controlled system used in warehouses or distribution centers to automatically store, retrieve, and manage inventory or materials.
Available to Promise (ATP): A concept or measurement used in production planning and scheduling to determine the quantity of a product that can be promised or delivered to customers at a specific time.
Average: The calculated mean or arithmetic average of a set of numbers or values.
Average Cost: The total cost divided by the quantity to determine the average cost per unit.
AA: Abbreviation for Average Arrival, referring to the average time it takes for goods or shipments to arrive at their destination.
AAR: Abbreviation for Association of American Railroads, a trade association representing the major freight railroads in North America, promoting the interests of the rail industry and providing industry statistics and standards.
Abaft: A nautical term indicating a position or location behind or toward the rear of a ship or vessel.
Abandon: To voluntarily relinquish or give up ownership or possession of goods, cargo, or a shipment.
Aboard: On or in a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle or conveyance.
Acceptance: The act of agreeing to the terms, conditions, or offer presented by another party, often related to contracts, shipments, or business transactions.
Acquiescence: The act of accepting or complying with something without objection or resistance.
Acquittance: A written document or receipt that acknowledges the discharge or settlement of a debt, obligation, or payment.
ACS (A.C.S.) or ACE: Abbreviation for Automated Commercial System or Automated Commercial Environment, electronic systems used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to process and track imports, exports, and customs data.
Ad Valorem: A Latin term meaning "according to value," often used to describe a tax or duty that is calculated as a percentage of the value of the goods.
Administrative Law Judge: A judge who presides over administrative hearings and adjudicates disputes or cases involving government agencies and regulations.
Admiralty (Adm.): Pertaining to maritime or maritime law, specifically related to the jurisdiction and legal matters of the sea and navigation.
Advance: To move forward or proceed ahead in time, action, or progress.
Advanced Charge: A charge or fee collected in advance for services or expenses that will be incurred in the future.
Advanced Notice of Arrival (ANOA): A notification or communication sent in advance to inform the recipient of an impending arrival, often used in transportation and logistics to provide notice of a shipment's arrival.
Adventure: In international trade, a term used to describe a business transaction or arrangement where goods are bought, sold, or shipped with the expectation of profit or gain.
Advice of Shipment: A document or communication sent to the consignee or recipient of a shipment to provide information about the shipment, such as tracking details, contents, or delivery instructions.
Advising Bank: A bank that receives and forwards documentary credits, letters of credit, or other financial instruments on behalf of the beneficiary or seller.
Aframax Tanker: A medium-sized crude oil tanker with a capacity between 80,000 and 120,000 deadweight tons (DWT), often used for transporting petroleum products.
Affreightment, Contract of: A contract between a shipper or cargo owner and a carrier or transportation provider for the transportation of goods or cargo by sea.
Aft: A nautical term indicating a position or location toward the rear or stern of a ship or vessel.
Agent (Agt.): A person, company, or entity authorized to act on behalf of another person, company, or entity in business or legal matters.
Agreed valuation: A predetermined or mutually agreed-upon value assigned to goods, property, or assets for insurance purposes.
Agreed Weight: A predetermined or mutually agreed-upon weight specified for goods or cargo for transportation or shipping purposes.
A.I.D.: Abbreviation for Automated Import Declaration, a system used by customs authorities to receive and process electronic import declarations and customs documentation.
All In: A pricing term indicating that the quoted or agreed-upon rate includes all charges, fees, and costs associated with a shipment or service.
Allision: The collision of a moving vessel with a stationary object, such as another vessel, a dock, or a bridge.
Alongside: A shipping term indicating that goods or cargo will be placed or delivered next to a vessel for loading or unloading.
Alternative Rates: Different rates or pricing options available for a service or shipment, often based on factors such as speed, transit time, or service level.
American Bureau of Shipping: A classification society that provides services related to the design, construction, and maintenance of ships and offshore structures, ensuring compliance with safety and quality standards.
AMS: Abbreviation for Automated Manifest System, an electronic system used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to receive and process advance cargo information for shipments arriving in the United States.
Any Quantity (A.Q.): A pricing or freight rate that applies to shipments of any quantity or size, often used for smaller shipments or less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments.
Apparent Good Order: A phrase indicating that goods or cargo appear to be in proper condition or order based on initial inspection or observation.
Appraisement: The process of determining the value, worth, or appraisal of goods, assets, or property for customs, taxation, insurance, or other purposes.
Appraiser's Stores: A designated location or facility where goods or cargo are stored for inspection, examination, or appraisal by a certified appraiser.
Arbitrary: A term used in freight transportation to describe a fixed or predetermined charge, rate, or fee that is not based on actual costs or market conditions.
ASC X12: The Accredited Standards Committee X12, a committee that develops and maintains electronic data interchange (EDI) standards for business-to-business transactions in various industries, including transportation and logistics.
Astern: A nautical term indicating movement or propulsion of a vessel in reverse or backward.
A.T.A.: Abbreviation for Actual Time of Arrival, referring to the real or factual time of arrival of a shipment or transport vehicle.
ATDNSHINC: Abbreviation for Any Time Day or Night Sundays and Holidays Included, indicating that a service or operation is available or can occur at any time, including weekends and holidays.
Athwartships: A nautical term indicating a direction or orientation perpendicular to the centerline or length of a ship or vessel.
Automated Identification System (AIS): A tracking system used in maritime transportation to electronically identify and monitor the location and movements of vessels in real-time.
Avoirdupois Pound: The standard pound used in the United States and other countries for measuring weight, equal to 16 ounces or approximately 0.4536 kilograms.
AWWL: Abbreviation for All Water West Coast to West Coast, referring to a shipping route or service that involves transportation solely by water from the West Coast of the United States to another West Coast destination.
: Additional services or activities provided by carriers or logistics providers beyond basic transportation, such as packaging, warehousing, customs clearance, or special handling.
Accrual Basis: An accounting method or principle in which revenue and expenses are recorded when they are earned or incurred, regardless of when cash is received or paid.
Additional Charges: Extra fees, costs, or expenses incurred in addition to the base rate or price, often due to special services, equipment, or unforeseen circumstances.
Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN): A notification or electronic message sent by a supplier or shipper to a buyer or recipient in advance of a shipment's arrival, providing detailed information about the contents, quantities, and delivery schedule.
Aftermarket: The market for parts, accessories, or services that are sold or provided after the initial sale of a product, often related to maintenance, repair, or customization.
Air Express: A fast, expedited air freight service for time-sensitive or urgent shipments, usually with guaranteed delivery times.
ACE: Abbreviation for Automated Commercial Environment, a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) system that facilitates the electronic submission and processing of import and export data, including customs declarations, invoices, and other documentation.
AES: Abbreviation for Automated Export System, a U.S. government system used for the electronic filing of export data, including export declarations, licenses, and shipping documents.
Aggregate Shipment: A shipment consisting of multiple individual orders or items consolidated together for transportation as a single unit, often used to achieve economies of scale or reduce costs.
Backhaul: The transportation of goods or cargo on the return leg of a journey, typically after delivering a previous load.
Backorder: An order for goods or products that cannot be fulfilled immediately due to temporary unavailability or insufficient inventory, resulting in a delay in delivery.
Backsourcing: The process of bringing previously outsourced functions, operations, or services back in-house or within the organization.
Balanced Scorecard: A performance measurement framework that considers various aspects of an organization's performance, including financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth perspectives.
Balance of Trade: The difference between the value of a country's exports and imports over a specific period, indicating whether it has a trade surplus (more exports than imports) or a trade deficit (more imports than exports).
Bale: A large compressed or bound package of goods, typically agricultural products or fibers, such as cotton or hay.
Bar Coding: The use of printed barcodes consisting of parallel lines and numbers to encode and represent data for quick and accurate scanning and identification of products, assets, or shipments.
Barge: A flat-bottomed vessel used for transporting goods or cargo on rivers, canals, or other waterways, often towed by a tugboat.
Barrier to Entry: Any obstacle or restriction that makes it difficult for new competitors to enter a market or industry, such as high costs, regulations, or brand loyalty.
Barter: The exchange of goods or services without the use of money, typically based on mutual agreement or need between parties.
Base Currency: The currency in which financial transactions and values are primarily expressed or denominated in a particular country or region.
Basing-Point Pricing: A pricing strategy in which the selling price of a product is set based on a specified geographic location or "basing point" and transportation costs from that point.
Batch Picking: A method of order picking in a warehouse or distribution center where multiple orders or items are grouped together and picked simultaneously to improve efficiency.
Benchmarking: The process of comparing an organization's performance, practices, or processes against those of industry leaders or best-in-class companies to identify areas for improvement or best practices.
Benefit-Cost Ratio: A financial metric used to assess the economic feasibility or profitability of an investment or project by comparing the present value of its benefits to the present value of its costs.
Best in Class: A term used to describe an organization, product, or service that is recognized as the best or highest performing within its industry or category.
Best Practice: A method, technique, or process that is widely recognized as the most effective or efficient way of achieving a desired outcome or result.
Bilateral Contract: A legal agreement or contract in which both parties involved have reciprocal obligations and responsibilities to fulfill.
Billing: The process of generating and sending invoices or bills to customers for products sold or services rendered.
Bill of Activities: A document that specifies the sequence, timing, and resources required for each activity or task in a production or manufacturing process.
Bill of Lading (BOL): A legal document issued by a carrier or transport company that serves as a contract of carriage and provides details about a shipment, including origin, destination, contents, and terms of transport.
Bill of Material (BOM): A comprehensive list of all the components, parts, and materials required to manufacture a product, typically including quantities, descriptions, and hierarchical relationships.
Bill of Material Accuracy: The degree to which the information in a bill of material (BOM) accurately reflects the actual components, parts, and materials used in the production or assembly process.
Bill of Resources: A document that lists the resources, such as equipment, labor, or tools, required to complete a project or task.
Bin Center: A designated storage location or area in a warehouse or distribution center where goods or inventory items are stored in bins or designated slots for efficient storage and retrieval.
Binder: A legal contract or document that binds or commits parties to specific terms, conditions, or obligations.
Blanket Order: A purchase order issued to a supplier or vendor for multiple deliveries of the same or similar items or products over a specified period, usually with predetermined quantities and pricing.
Blanket Purchase Order: A purchase order that authorizes multiple purchases or releases of goods or services from a supplier within a specified period or under certain conditions, often used when exact quantities or delivery schedules are not known in advance.
Blanket Rate: A single, predetermined freight rate or charge that applies to multiple shipments or services within a specified period, regardless of the actual quantity, weight, or distance.
Blanket Release: A release or authorization issued by a buyer to a supplier under a blanket order, specifying the quantity and timing of a particular release or delivery.
Blanket Wrap: A method of packaging or protecting goods for transportation by using a single covering or wrap to enclose multiple items or pieces of varying sizes and shapes.
Bleeding Edge: A term used to describe technologies, products, or processes that are at the forefront of innovation and development, but may also carry a higher risk or uncertainty due to their early stage of adoption.
Blow Through: A situation in supply chain management where demand for a product or item exceeds the available supply, often resulting in stockouts or shortages.
BOL: Abbreviation for Bill of Lading, a legal document issued by a carrier or transport company that serves as a contract of carriage and provides details about a shipment, including origin, destination, contents, and terms of transport.
BOM: Abbreviation for Bill of Material, a comprehensive list of all the components, parts, and materials required to manufacture a product, typically including quantities, descriptions, and hierarchical relationships.
Bonded: Refers to goods or materials that are held under customs control or in a customs-bonded area, typically for import/export purposes and until appropriate duties or taxes are paid.
Bonded Warehouse: A facility or storage area authorized by customs authorities where goods can be stored without payment of duties or taxes until they are released for distribution or further processing.
Bookable Leg: A specific segment or portion of a transportation route or itinerary that can be booked or reserved independently, such as a single flight or trucking leg.
Booking: The process of reserving or securing space, services, or transportation capacity in advance for the movement of goods or passengers.
Booking Number: A unique identifier or reference number assigned to a booking or reservation to track and identify the associated shipment or service.
Bottleneck: A point or process in a system or workflow where the capacity or flow is limited, causing delays or constraints on overall performance or efficiency.
Boxcar: A type of railroad freight car or wagon that has an enclosed body with doors on the sides, used for transporting general cargo or goods.
BPM: Abbreviation for Business Process Management, a systematic approach to analyzing, designing, executing, and optimizing business processes to achieve organizational goals and improve efficiency.
BPO: Abbreviation for Business Process Outsourcing, the practice of contracting specific business functions or processes to external service providers to reduce costs, improve quality, or focus on core competencies.
BPR: Abbreviation for Business Process Reengineering, a strategy or approach that involves the radical redesign and improvement of core business processes to achieve significant performance gains or competitive advantage.
Bracing: The use of supports, braces, or reinforcements to secure and stabilize cargo or goods during transportation, particularly to prevent shifting, damage, or collapse.
Bracketed Recall: A recall of a product or batch that extends beyond the specific units or lot numbers initially identified, usually as a precautionary measure or due to potential contamination or quality issues.
Branding: The process of creating a unique and recognizable identity, image, or reputation for a product, company, or organization through distinctive names, logos, symbols, or designs.
Break-Bulk: The handling or transportation of cargo or goods in individual units, packages, or pieces rather than in bulk or large quantities, often involving the loading and unloading of different items.
Break Bulk Cargo: General cargo or goods that are not containerized or carried in bulk, typically consisting of individual items, packages, or units that need to be loaded and unloaded separately.
Break Bulk Vessel: A ship or vessel specifically designed and equipped for the transportation of break bulk cargo, with facilities for handling individual units or packages.
Break-Even Point: The point at which total revenue equals total costs, indicating the level of sales or production required to cover all expenses without incurring a profit or loss.
Broker: An intermediary or agent who facilitates transactions between buyers and sellers, often in exchange for a commission or fee, in various industries including transportation, logistics, and finance.
Bucketed System: A system or method of categorizing or grouping items, data, or resources into specific categories or buckets based on predetermined criteria or characteristics.
Buffer: A reserved or excess capacity, inventory, or time that is strategically placed or used to absorb fluctuations, uncertainties, or variations in demand or supply.
Buffer Management: The process of actively monitoring and controlling inventory buffers or stock levels to ensure optimal performance and minimize disruptions or inefficiencies.
Buffer Stock: A quantity of inventory held as a buffer or safety stock to protect against unforeseen fluctuations in demand, supply disruptions, or lead time variations.
Build to Inventory: A production or manufacturing strategy in which goods or products are produced or manufactured in anticipation of customer orders, with the aim of having inventory available for immediate delivery.
Build to Order: A production or manufacturing strategy in which goods or products are made or assembled only after receiving customer orders, allowing for customization and reducing inventory costs.
Build to Stock: Similar to "Build to Inventory," this refers to a production or manufacturing strategy in which goods or products are produced or manufactured in advance and stocked for immediate delivery.
Bulk Area: A designated section or zone within a warehouse or storage facility used for storing bulk or loose goods that are not contained in packages or individual units.
Bulk Cargo: Loose or unpackaged cargo that is loaded, transported, or handled in large quantities, such as minerals, grains, liquids, or raw materials.
Bullwhip Effect: The phenomenon of demand variability amplification along the supply chain, where small fluctuations in consumer demand can result in larger variations in orders, inventory, and production requirements as they propagate upstream.
Bundle: A group or collection of items, products, or services that are packaged or sold together as a single unit, often offering convenience or cost savings to the customer.
Bundling: The practice of combining multiple products, services, or offerings into a single package or bundle, often to enhance value, increase sales, or simplify purchasing decisions.
Burn Rate: The rate at which a company or project consumes or "burns through" its available funds or capital, typically measured as a monthly or weekly expenditure.
Business Application: A software program or system designed to support specific business processes or functions, such as accounting, customer relationship management (CRM), or inventory management.
Business Continuity Plan (BCP): A comprehensive strategy or set of procedures and protocols designed to ensure the continued operation or recovery of critical business functions in the event of a disruption or disaster.
Business Logistics: The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient and effective flow of goods, services, and information within and across organizations to meet customer requirements and achieve organizational objectives.
Business Plan: A formal document that outlines the goals, strategies, financial projections, and operational details of a business or organization, typically used to guide decision-making and secure funding.
Business Performance Measurement (BPM): The process of collecting, analyzing, and evaluating data and metrics to assess and track the performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of business operations and processes.
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): The practice of contracting specific business functions or processes to external service providers to reduce costs, improve quality, or focus on core competencies.
Business Process Reengineering (BPR): A strategy or approach that involves the radical redesign and improvement of core business processes to achieve significant performance gains or competitive advantage.
Business Unit: A distinct division or segment within a larger organization that operates independently and has its own set of goals, responsibilities, and resources.
Buyer: An individual, organization, or entity that acquires goods, services, or assets from a seller or supplier in exchange for payment or other consideration.
Buyer Behavior: The actions, decisions, and patterns of behavior exhibited by buyers during the process of evaluating, purchasing, and using products or services.
Bill of Lading Port of Discharge: The port or destination specified on a bill of lading where the goods are to be delivered to the consignee or receiver.
Bill of Sale: A legal document that serves as proof of the transfer or sale of ownership of goods, assets, or property from one party to another.
Bill to Party: The individual, organization, or entity to whom the invoice or bill for goods or services is addressed or sent.
Billed Weight: The weight used for calculating shipping charges, which may be based on the actual weight of the shipment or a dimensional weight calculation.
BIMCO: Abbreviation for the Baltic and International Maritime Council, an international shipping association that develops standard contracts and promotes fair and safe practices in the maritime industry.
Blanket Bond: An insurance policy or bond that provides coverage for a broad range of liabilities or risks, often used in logistics or transportation to protect against loss, damage, or non-performance.
Blanket Waybill: A document that serves as a receipt and contract of carriage for multiple shipments or goods, typically used when a series of shipments are transported under the same terms and conditions.
Blind Shipment: A shipment in which the identity of the shipper, consignee, or both is concealed or kept confidential from one or more parties involved in the transportation or logistics process.
Block Stowage: A method of arranging or stowing cargo within a transportation vessel or container in a way that maximizes space utilization and stability.
Blocked Trains: Trains that are unable to proceed due to operational issues, congestion, or other factors that temporarily prevent their movement.
Blocking or Bracing: The act of securing or immobilizing cargo or goods within a transportation vehicle, container, or packaging to prevent shifting, damage, or collapse during transit.
Bls.: Abbreviation for "Bales," a unit of measurement for certain types of commodities or goods, typically indicating the quantity or volume of bundled or packaged materials.
Board: The act of physically entering a vessel, aircraft, or other mode of transportation to embark or disembark passengers or cargo.
Board Feet: A unit of measurement used in the lumber and timber industry, representing the volume of a board that is one foot long, one foot wide, and one inch thick.
Boat: A watercraft or vessel used for transportation on rivers, lakes, or other bodies of water.
Bobtail: A term commonly used in the trucking industry to refer to a truck or tractor operating without a trailer attached.
Bogie: A framework or undercarriage that supports and guides the wheels of a railway or tram vehicle.
Bolster: A long, cushion-like support or frame used to secure and protect cargo during transportation, particularly in rail or flatbed trucking.
Bond Port: A designated port or location where goods or shipments are placed under customs bond or supervision.
Bonded Freight: Goods or cargo that is held in bond or under customs control, typically requiring the payment of duties or taxes before being released for further transportation or delivery.
Bottom Side Rails: The lower structural components or beams along the sides of a shipping container, providing structural strength and support.
Bottom-Air Delivery: A method of cargo handling in which air is introduced from the bottom of a container or transport unit to facilitate the unloading or discharge of bulk materials.
Bow: The front or forward part of a vessel or ship.
Break Bulk: The process of unloading, handling, and distributing individual or loose pieces of cargo or goods, as opposed to containerized or unitized shipments.
Bridge Point: A location or point where transportation services transition from one mode or carrier to another, often involving a transfer of goods or cargo.
Bridge Port: A port or location that serves as a hub or connection point for the transfer of goods or cargo between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains, or trucks.
Broken Stowage: The space within a transportation vessel or container that is not fully utilized due to irregularities in cargo shape, size, or packaging, resulting in inefficiencies or unused space.
Brokerage: The business or service of facilitating transactions between buyers and sellers, typically involving the negotiation, arrangement, and coordination of contracts and agreements.
Bulk-Freight Container: A container specifically designed for the transportation of bulk goods or commodities, such as grains, liquids, or powders.
Bulkhead: A vertical partition or wall within a transportation vessel or container that separates different compartments or areas and provides structural support.
Bull Rings: Metal rings or fixtures embedded in the floor or walls of transportation vehicles or containers to secure and fasten cargo during transit.
Bunker Charge: A fee or surcharge imposed by shipping lines or carriers to cover the cost of fuel or bunker consumption associated with the transportation of goods.
Bunkers: Refers to the fuel or energy resources (typically marine fuel) stored onboard a ship for propulsion and operation during a voyage.
BB: Abbreviation for "Breakbulk," referring to cargo that is transported individually or in loose form, rather than containerized or unitized.
B/L: Abbreviation for "Bill of Lading," a legal document that serves as a contract of carriage, receipt of goods, and title to the transported goods.
BAF: Abbreviation for "Bunker Adjustment Factor," a surcharge applied to shipping rates to account for fluctuations in fuel prices.
Balloon Freight: Refers to shipments that occupy a relatively large volume compared to their actual weight, resulting in higher transportation costs due to volumetric considerations.
Bank Guarantee: A financial instrument or agreement issued by a bank to guarantee payment or performance of obligations by one party to another in a commercial transaction.
Barratry: The illegal or fraudulent act of a ship's master or crew that results in damage, loss, or harm to the ship, cargo, or parties involved in a voyage.
Barrel (BBL): A unit of measurement for liquids or commodities, typically referring to a standardized volume of oil or petroleum.
Base Rate: The standard or baseline transportation rate applied to goods or services before additional charges or discounts are included.
BCO: Abbreviation for "Beneficial Cargo Owner," referring to the party or entity that owns or holds title to the cargo being transported, often used in the context of containerized shipping.
Beam: The width or breadth of a vessel or ship, measured at its widest point.
Belt Line: A railroad or railway line that encircles or loops around a specific area or region, often used for the local distribution of goods or connecting different industrial sites.
Beneficiary: The party or entity entitled to receive a payment, benefit, or advantage under a contract, agreement, or financial arrangement.
Berth Terms: The conditions, obligations, and responsibilities associated with the use of a specific berth or docking facility at a port or harbor for vessel loading or unloading operations.
Beyond: Refers to something that is outside or surpasses a particular limit, scope, or boundary.
Bilateral: Involving or relating to two parties or countries, typically characterized by mutual agreements, commitments, or exchanges.
Bill of Exchange: A written, unconditional order issued by one party to another, directing the recipient to pay a specified amount to a third party at a designated time.
Bill of Lading (B/L): A legal document issued by a carrier or its agent that serves as evidence of the contract of carriage, receipt of goods, and title to the transported goods.
Backhaul Carrier: A transportation carrier that specializes in transporting cargo on return trips or empty legs of a shipment, often maximizing efficiency and reducing costs.
Backup Inventory: Additional stock or inventory held as a contingency or reserve to meet unexpected demand, replenish depleted supplies, or mitigate disruptions in the supply chain.
Balance Sheet: A financial statement that provides a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time, representing its financial position.
Base Stock Level: The minimum quantity of inventory maintained in stock to support ongoing operations or production, typically used as a reference point for replenishment.
Batch Control: The management and oversight of a group or lot of items produced or processed together, ensuring proper identification, tracking, and quality control.
Bearer Bond: A bond or debt instrument that is owned by whoever holds physical possession of the bond, as it does not require registration of ownership.
Benchmark: A reference point or standard used for comparison, evaluation, or measurement, often used to assess performance, quality, or efficiency.
Bid Bond: A financial guarantee provided by a bidder in response to a request for proposal (RFP) or tender, ensuring that the bidder will comply with the terms and conditions of the bid if selected.
Bilateral Trade Agreement: An agreement between two countries or trading partners to facilitate and regulate trade by reducing barriers, tariffs, or other restrictions.
Bill of Lading (B/L) Tracking: The process of monitoring and tracing the movement of a shipment using the unique identification number or code assigned to the bill of lading.
Bill of Lading Terms: The specific conditions, clauses, and provisions outlined on a bill of lading that govern the rights, responsibilities, and liabilities of the parties involved in a shipment.
Bill of Material (BOM) Explosion: The process of breaking down a higher-level product or assembly into its individual components or parts to determine the complete BOM structure.
Bonded Carrier: A transportation carrier or operator authorized to transport goods under customs control or bond, typically involving the movement of goods between customs territories or within bonded areas.
Break Bulk Terminal: A facility or area designed for the handling, storage, and distribution of break bulk cargo, which is not containerized or unitized.
Break-Even Analysis: A financial analysis technique used to determine the point at which total revenue equals total costs, resulting in neither profit nor loss.
Brokerage Fee: A fee or commission paid to a broker or intermediary for facilitating or arranging a transaction between buyers and sellers of goods or services.
Bulk Freight: Goods or cargo that is transported in large quantities, typically loose or unpackaged, such as grains, coal, liquids, or minerals.
Bulk Storage: The storage of goods or materials in large quantities without individual packaging or unitization, often using containers, tanks, or silos.
Business Intelligence (BI): The process of collecting, analyzing, and presenting data and information to support business decision-making, strategic planning, and performance monitoring.
Buyer's Market: A market condition or situation in which there are more sellers than buyers, resulting in favorable conditions and greater bargaining power for buyers.
Back-to-Back Order: An order placed by a buyer that is directly supported by a corresponding order from another buyer, allowing for simultaneous procurement and fulfillment.
Break Bulk Point: A specific location or point in a transportation route or network where cargo or goods are unloaded, sorted, consolidated, or distributed for further transport or delivery.
Block Train: A train consisting of a continuous block or string of railcars carrying cargo or goods, often operating on a dedicated route or schedule.
Bonded Transit: The movement of goods or cargo under customs supervision or control between different customs territories or jurisdictions.
Bonded Zone: A designated area or facility that is legally authorized for the storage, processing, or manufacturing of goods under customs control or bond.
Base Stock Method: An inventory management approach that maintains stock at a certain base level and replenishes it when the quantity falls below a predetermined threshold.
Business Continuity Management (BCM): The process of developing and implementing strategies, plans, and actions to ensure the ongoing operation and resilience of a business during and after disruptive events or crises.
Backward Integration: A business strategy or process in which a company expands its operations by acquiring or controlling suppliers or resources upstream in the supply chain.
Backward Scheduling: A scheduling technique that determines the start and end dates of activities or tasks based on the desired completion date, working backward from the deadline.
Barter System: A method of trade or exchange in which goods or services are directly traded or exchanged for other goods or services, without the use of money.
Bonded Carrier Status: A certification or authorization granted to a carrier, indicating that it has met specific requirements and is approved to transport goods under customs control or bond.
Bonded Terminal: A designated terminal or facility authorized for the storage, handling, and distribution of goods under customs control or bond.
Bulk Carrier: A specialized vessel or ship designed for the transportation of bulk commodities, such as grains, ores, coal, or liquids, often equipped with large cargo holds or compartments.
Bulk Freight Rate: The transportation rate or charge applied to bulk cargo shipments, typically based on the weight, volume, or nature of the goods being transported.
Buy-Sell Agreement: A legally binding contract or agreement between parties outlining the terms and conditions for the purchase or sale of goods, assets, or business interests.
Backfilling: The process of refilling or replacing excavated or removed materials, such as soil, rock, or waste, to restore or stabilize a site or area.
Bill of Materials (BOM) Cost: The total cost associated with the components, parts, or materials listed in a bill of materials (BOM) for the production of a specific product or assembly.
Bill of Materials (BOM) Explosion: The process of breaking down a higher-level product or assembly into its individual components or parts to determine the complete BOM structure.
Bill of Materials (BOM) Level: The hierarchical level or position of a component or part within the bill of materials (BOM) structure, indicating its relationship to other items.
Bill of Materials (BOM) Structure: The organization and arrangement of components, parts, or materials in a bill of materials (BOM), defining the hierarchy and relationships between items.
Bill of Materials (BOM) Variance: The difference or deviation between the expected or planned quantities of components or parts specified in a bill of materials (BOM) and the actual quantities used in production.
Backward Compatibility: The ability of a system, software, or technology to work seamlessly and interchangeably with earlier versions or legacy systems, ensuring compatibility and continuity.
C & F: Cost and Freight, an Incoterm indicating that the seller is responsible for the cost of goods and freight charges until they reach the destination port.
Cab Extenders: Additional attachments or devices installed on a truck cab to extend its length, often used to accommodate longer cargo or improve aerodynamics.
Cabotage: The restriction of domestic transportation or trade activities within the borders of a particular country to its own national carriers or operators.
CAE: Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Engineering, the use of computer software and systems to aid in the design, analysis, and simulation of engineering processes and products.
CAD: Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Design, the use of computer software and systems to create, modify, and document designs or technical drawings.
CADEX: Canada Customs Automated Export Declaration system, an electronic system used for reporting export shipments and customs information in Canada.
CAF: Currency Adjustment Factor, a surcharge or adjustment applied to shipping or freight rates to account for fluctuations in exchange rates between different currencies.
Cage: A secure container or enclosure used for storing, transporting, or protecting goods, typically made of metal or wire.
Caged: Referring to goods or items that are contained within a cage or secure enclosure for storage, transport, or safety purposes.
Calendar Days: The total number of days, including weekends and holidays, in a specific time period, often used for scheduling, lead times, or contractual obligations.
Can-Order Point: A replenishment technique where an order is placed when the inventory level reaches a predetermined minimum quantity, ensuring timely replenishment.
Capacity Management: The process of planning, monitoring, and optimizing the utilization of resources, such as equipment, facilities, or personnel, to meet demand and achieve operational efficiency.
Capacity: The maximum amount or level of production, output, or workload that a system, facility, or resource can handle within a given timeframe.
CAPEX: Capital Expenditure, the funds or investments made by a company to acquire, upgrade, or maintain long-term assets, such as property, equipment, or infrastructure.
Capital: Financial resources, assets, or funds that are invested in a business or enterprise to generate income, profits, or returns.
CAPSTAN: A mechanical device used on ships to control or manipulate ropes, cables, or lines during mooring or anchoring operations.
CARAT: Computer-Aided Resource Allocation Tool, a software tool or system used for optimizing resource allocation, scheduling, or planning in various industries.
Cargo: Goods, merchandise, or freight being transported by any mode of transportation, such as ships, airplanes, trucks, or trains.
Carmack Amendment: A U.S. federal law that regulates the liability of carriers for loss or damage to goods during interstate transportation.
Carnet: A customs document that allows the temporary importation of goods duty-free into a foreign country for a specific purpose, such as exhibitions or trade shows.
Carousel: A storage and retrieval system consisting of rotating shelves or bins that bring items to a picking or loading position for efficient order fulfillment.
Carriage: The act or process of transporting goods or passengers from one place to another, often referring to the movement of cargo by a carrier.
Carrier: A company, organization, or individual engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers by various modes of transportation.
Carrier Assets: The physical assets owned or operated by a carrier, such as trucks, ships, airplanes, or warehouses, used for the transportation or storage of goods.
Carrier Certificate and Release Order: A document issued by a carrier that acknowledges the receipt of goods and authorizes their release to the consignee or another party.
Cartel: An association or group of independent businesses or companies that collaborate to control prices, production, distribution, or other aspects of a particular industry or market.
Cartage: The transportation of goods or cargo over short distances, typically within a local area or between nearby locations.
Carton Flow Rack: A storage rack system that uses inclined shelves or rollers to facilitate the movement and picking of goods or cartons by gravity.
Cash Against Documents (CAD): A payment method in international trade where the buyer makes payment to the seller upon presentation of specified documents, such as a bill of lading or commercial invoice.
Cash Conversion Cycle: A financial metric that measures the time it takes for a company to convert its investments in inventory and other resources back into cash through sales and collection.
Cash In Advance (CIA): A payment method in which the buyer makes full payment to the seller before the goods are shipped or delivered.
Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time: The duration or time it takes for a company to convert its investments in inventory and other resources into cash through sales and collection.
Cash with Order (CWO): A payment method in which the buyer makes payment to the seller at the time the order is placed.
Catalog Channel: A marketing and sales channel that involves the use of catalogs or product listings, typically in printed or digital format, to showcase and promote products to customers.
Category Management: A strategic approach to procurement and supply chain management that involves grouping similar products or services into categories for better management, sourcing, and performance tracking.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram: A graphical tool or diagram, also known as a fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram, used to identify and analyze the potential causes of a problem or quality issue.
CBT: Abbreviation for Computer-Based Training, a method of training or education that uses computer technology and interactive modules to deliver learning materials and assessments.
CELL: Abbreviation for Cellular Manufacturing, a production system or layout that organizes workstations or machines into cells or groups to facilitate a more efficient flow of materials and reduce setup times.
Central Dispatching: A centralized control or coordination system that manages and directs the movement and allocation of resources, such as vehicles, equipment, or personnel, in transportation or logistics operations.
Centralized Authority: A management or decision-making structure in which authority and decision-making power are concentrated at a central level or within a specific role or position.
Centralized Inventory Control: A centralized approach to managing and controlling inventory across multiple locations or facilities, typically using centralized systems, processes, and decision-making.
Certificate of Compliance: A document issued by a regulatory authority, certification body, or manufacturer stating that a product, process, or system complies with specified standards, regulations, or requirements.
Certificate of Origin: A document issued by a competent authority or organization certifying the country of origin of goods, providing evidence for customs purposes and eligibility for preferential trade agreements.
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: A legal document or permit issued by a regulatory body or government agency authorizing an entity or individual to provide specific transportation services, such as operating a common carrier or public utility.
Certificated Carrier: A carrier that has been granted a certificate or license by the appropriate regulatory authority, indicating compliance with specific safety and operational standards.
Certified Supplier: A supplier or vendor that has been officially certified or approved as meeting certain quality, performance, or regulatory requirements.
CFS: Abbreviation for Container Freight Station, a facility where cargo is consolidated, deconsolidated, and stored in containers for transportation.
CFS/CFS: A shipping term indicating that the carrier is responsible for the cargo from the Container Freight Station at the port of origin to the Container Freight Station at the port of destination.
Chain of Customers: The sequence or flow of customers involved in the supply chain, from the initial supplier of raw materials to the end consumer of finished goods.
Change Management: The systematic approach and process of managing and implementing changes within an organization to achieve desired outcomes and minimize resistance.
Change Order: A written document that requests a modification or alteration to a previously agreed-upon contract, scope of work, or purchase order.
Changeover: The process of transitioning from one production setup or operation to another, typically involving the reconfiguration of equipment, tools, or processes.
Channel: A pathway or route through which products, services, or information flows from the producer or supplier to the end consumer or user.
Channel Conflict: Disagreements, disputes, or competition that arise between different entities or partners operating within the same distribution channel.
Channel Partners: Independent organizations or individuals that collaborate with a manufacturer or supplier to market, sell, or distribute products or services through a specific channel.
Channels of Distribution: The various routes or pathways through which goods or services move from the producer to the consumer, including wholesalers, retailers, agents, and direct sales.
Chargeable Weight: The weight used to calculate transportation charges, which may be based on the actual weight or dimensional weight, depending on the carrier's rules and regulations.
Charging Area: A designated location or zone where electric vehicles or machinery can be charged or recharged.
Chassis: A wheeled frame or undercarriage used to support and transport containers, trailers, or other cargo-carrying units.
CI: Abbreviation for Continuous Improvement, a systematic approach to making incremental and ongoing improvements to processes, products, or services.
CIA: Abbreviation for Cash In Advance, a payment method in which the buyer makes full payment to the seller before the goods are shipped or delivered.
City Driver: A professional driver who operates within urban or metropolitan areas, typically making deliveries or pickups in local or regional routes.
Civil Aeronautics Board: A former U.S. federal regulatory agency responsible for overseeing and regulating civil aviation and air transportation.
CL: Abbreviation for Carload, a unit of measure used in transportation to denote the quantity or volume of freight that fills a railcar or truck trailer.
Claim: A formal request or demand for compensation, reimbursement, or resolution of a dispute or loss related to transportation, insurance, or contractual agreements.
Class I Carrier: A classification of carriers based on their annual operating revenue, typically indicating the largest carriers in the industry.
Class II Carrier: A classification of carriers based on their annual operating revenue, typically indicating carriers of intermediate size between Class I and Class III.
Class III Carrier: A classification of carriers based on their annual operating revenue, typically indicating smaller carriers in the industry.
Class 1 Railroad: A major railroad company that meets specific criteria, such as operating revenue and mileage, as defined by the Surface Transportation Board in the United States.
Class Rates: Freight rates established for specific classes or categories of goods based on their characteristics, such as density, value, and handling requirements.
Classification: The process of categorizing or assigning goods or commodities into specific classes or categories based on their nature, characteristics, or regulatory requirements.
Classification Yard: A railroad facility or yard where freight cars are sorted, classified, and grouped according to their destinations or connections.
Clearance: The process of obtaining official permission, approval, or authorization for the movement or release of goods through customs or other regulatory bodies.
Clearinghouse: An intermediary or central entity that facilitates the exchange, settlement, and clearing of financial transactions, documents, or information between multiple parties.
CLM: Abbreviation for Closed Loop MRP (Material Requirements Planning), a manufacturing planning and control system that uses feedback loops to adjust production plans based on actual demand and inventory levels.
Closed Loop MRP: A manufacturing planning and control system that uses feedback loops to adjust production plans based on actual demand and inventory levels, ensuring efficient and timely production.
CMI: Abbreviation for Continuous Manufacturing Improvement, a systematic approach to making ongoing improvements in the manufacturing process to enhance productivity, quality, and efficiency.
CO: Abbreviation for Certificate of Origin, a document that certifies the country in which goods were produced or manufactured.
CO2: Abbreviation for Carbon Dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is released as a byproduct of various industrial processes, transportation, and combustion of fossil fuels.
Co-Destiny: A strategic concept that emphasizes the interdependence and mutual success of all stakeholders in a supply chain or business ecosystem.
Co-Packer: A company or manufacturer that provides packaging and/or production services on behalf of another company, typically under a contract or agreement.
Code: A system of rules, regulations, or standards that governs the conduct, behavior, or practices within a particular industry, organization, or jurisdiction.
Codifying: The process of organizing and structuring information, rules, or practices into a systematic and coherent code or set of codes.
COFC: Abbreviation for Container on Flat Car, a method of intermodal transportation where containers are loaded onto specialized railcars, allowing for efficient and seamless transfer between rail and truck.
COGS: Abbreviation for Cost of Goods Sold, the direct costs incurred in producing or acquiring goods that are sold during a specific period.
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR): A business process that involves collaboration between trading partners to optimize supply chain planning, demand forecasting, and inventory replenishment.
Collect Freight: A shipping arrangement in which the transportation charges are to be paid by the consignee or recipient of the goods upon delivery.
Collective Paper: Documentation or paperwork that is collectively shared, used, or accessed by multiple individuals or parties within a business or organization.
Combi Aircraft: An aircraft that can carry both passengers and cargo in the same flight, typically with flexible seating configurations or removable cargo compartments.
Combined Lead Time: The total time required for an item or order to move through the entire supply chain, including procurement, production, transportation, and delivery.
Commercial Invoice: A document provided by the seller to the buyer that itemizes the goods or products being sold, their quantities, prices, and terms of sale for customs and payment purposes.
Commercial Zone: An area designated for commercial or industrial activities, typically with specific regulations or zoning restrictions related to land use and development.
Committed Capability: The capacity, resources, or capabilities that an organization or supplier has committed to providing to meet specific customer demands or requirements.
Committee of American Steamship Lines: An organization representing the interests of American steamship companies involved in domestic and international trade.
Commodities: Raw materials, goods, or products that are traded in large quantities and have standardized specifications or characteristics.
Commodities Clause: A provision or regulation that prohibits discrimination in transportation rates, services, or practices based on the commodity being shipped.
Commodity Buying: The process of procuring or purchasing raw materials, goods, or products that are classified as commodities,
typically involving standardized specifications and market-based pricing.
Commodity Code: A numerical code or classification system used to identify and categorize specific commodities or products for regulatory, statistical, or tariff purposes.
Commodity Procurement Strategy: A strategic approach or plan for acquiring or sourcing commodities to meet an organization's operational or production requirements while optimizing cost, quality, and availability.
Commodity Rate: A freight rate or charge applicable to the transportation of a specific commodity or class of commodities, often based on industry standards or regulatory guidelines.
Common Carrier: A transportation provider or company that offers its services to the general public or any customer willing to pay for the transportation of goods or passengers.
Common Carrier Duties: The legal obligations and responsibilities of a common carrier, which typically include providing reasonable and nondiscriminatory transportation services to the public.
Common Cost: A shared or allocated cost that is incurred jointly by multiple products, departments, or activities within an organization.
Commuter: A person who regularly travels between their place of residence and their workplace or educational institution, typically on a daily basis.
Company Culture: The shared values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize an organization and guide the interactions and decisions of its employees.
Comparative Advantage: The ability of an individual, company, or country to produce goods or services at a lower opportunity cost or more efficiently compared to others.
Competitive Advantage: A unique set of strengths, capabilities, or advantages that allows an organization to outperform its competitors and achieve superior performance in the marketplace.
Competitive Benchmarking: The process of comparing an organization's performance, practices, or products against those of its competitors or industry leaders to identify areas for improvement or best practices.
Competitive Bid: A bidding process in which multiple suppliers or vendors submit proposals or offers to compete for a contract, project, or purchase order.
Complete and On-Time Delivery (COTD): A performance metric that measures the percentage of orders or shipments delivered to customers in full and on schedule, without any shortages or delays.
Complete Manufacture to Ship Time: The total time required to manufacture a product or item, including all processing, assembly, and quality control activities, up to the point of shipment.
Compliance: The adherence to laws, regulations, standards, policies, or contractual obligations to ensure that an organization operates within the required legal and ethical boundaries.
Component: A single part, element, or item that is used in the construction, assembly, or composition of a larger product or system.
Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE): The use of computer software and systems to assist in the design, analysis, and simulation of engineering tasks, such as product development or manufacturing processes.
Computer-Based Training: A method of delivering training or educational materials using computer technology, often through interactive modules or programs.
Conference: An organized gathering or meeting of individuals, experts, or industry professionals to discuss, share knowledge, and exchange ideas on specific topics or issues.
Conference Carrier: A transportation company that is a member of a conference or consortium that collectively sets rates, services, and operational standards for a specific trade route or market.
Configuration: The arrangement, composition, or setup of components, parts, or elements within a system, product, or process.
Configure/Package to Order: A manufacturing or production approach in which products are assembled, configured, or packaged according to specific customer requirements or orders.
Confirmation: The process of verifying or validating a transaction, reservation, or agreement to ensure its accuracy, completeness, or compliance.
Confirming Order: A purchase order or request issued by a buyer to confirm or validate a previous verbal or informal agreement with a supplier, often used to secure or formalize the transaction.
Conformance: The degree to which a product, process, or service adheres to specified requirements, standards, or expectations.
Conrail: A former
railroad company in the United States that was created by the federal government to consolidate and manage bankrupt or financially troubled railroads in the Northeast.
Consent Order: A legal agreement or order issued by a regulatory authority or court that requires a party to take specific actions or refrain from certain activities.
Consignment: A business arrangement in which goods or products are entrusted to a consignee to sell on behalf of the consignor, with the consignor retaining ownership until the items are sold.
Consignment Inventory: Inventory that is owned by a supplier or manufacturer but held and stored at a customer's location until it is sold or used.
Consolidation: The process of combining multiple smaller shipments or orders into a single larger shipment or order for more efficient transportation or handling.
Consolidation Point: A location or facility where smaller shipments or orders are combined or consolidated into larger shipments or orders for further transportation.
Consortium: An association, partnership, or cooperative group of organizations or entities that collaborate and pool their resources to achieve a common objective or goal.
Constraints: Limitations, restrictions, or factors that impede or restrict the performance, efficiency, or effectiveness of a system, process, or operation.
Consultant: A professional or expert who provides specialized advice, guidance, or services to individuals, organizations, or businesses in a specific field or industry.
Consumer: An individual or entity that purchases or uses goods, products, or services for personal or household consumption.
Consumer Behavior: The study of how individuals, groups, or organizations make decisions, choose, and use products or services to satisfy their needs and wants.
Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG): Products that are consumed frequently and purchased by individuals, typically for personal or household use, such as food, beverages, toiletries, or cleaning products.
Consumer Price Index (CPI): A measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of goods and services, used to track inflation or price trends.
Consumer Surplus: The difference between the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for a product or service and the actual price they pay, representing their perceived gain or benefit.
Container: A standardized, reusable metal or plastic box used for the transportation and storage of goods, designed to fit onto different modes of transportation, such as ships, trucks, or trains.
Container Freight Station (CFS): A facility where cargo is consolidated, deconsolidated, or stored in containers for transportation.
Container Load Plan: A detailed plan or document that specifies the arrangement and positioning of cargo or goods within a container for safe and efficient transportation.
Container Terminal: A specialized facility or port area equipped with cranes, handling equipment, and storage areas for loading, unloading, and temporary storage of containers.
Containerization: The process of packing goods or cargo into containers for transportation, allowing for efficient handling, intermodal transfer, and secure storage.
Continuous Improvement: A systematic approach to making incremental and ongoing improvements to processes, products, or services to enhance efficiency, quality, and customer satisfaction.
Contract: A legally binding agreement between two or more parties that outlines the terms, conditions, rights, and obligations related to a transaction, project, or relationship.
Contract Logistics: The outsourcing of logistics activities, such as warehousing, distribution, transportation, and inventory management, to a third-party logistics provider (3PL) under a contract or agreement.
Contract Manufacturer: A company or manufacturer that produces goods or products on behalf of another company, typically under a contract or agreement.
Contract of Affreightment (COA): A contract or agreement between a shipowner or carrier and a charterer, specifying the terms, conditions, and obligations for the transportation of goods or cargo over a period of time.
Contract Packaging: The outsourcing of packaging activities, such as assembly
, labeling, and packaging, to a specialized company or service provider under a contract or agreement.
Contract Price: The agreed-upon price or rate stipulated in a contract for the provision of goods, services, or transportation.
Contract Warehousing: The outsourcing of warehousing and storage functions to a third-party service provider under a contract or agreement.
Control Chart: A graphical tool used in statistical process control to monitor and track the performance and variation of a process over time.
Conveyance: A vehicle or mode of transportation used for the movement of goods, people, or materials, such as trucks, ships, airplanes, or trains.
Cooperative: A business or organization owned and operated by its members, who collaborate and share resources for their mutual benefit.
Core Competencies: The unique strengths, capabilities, or skills that differentiate an organization from its competitors and provide a competitive advantage in the market.
Core Carrier: A transportation company that is designated as a preferred or primary carrier for a specific customer or shipping lane, often based on established service levels, rates, or contractual agreements.
Core Process: A fundamental or essential process within an organization that directly contributes to its core business objectives or value creation.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The concept that businesses have a responsibility to consider and address the social, environmental, and ethical impacts of their operations and decisions.
Corrective Action: An action taken to identify, correct, or rectify a problem, nonconformity, or deviation from established standards, processes, or requirements.
Cost Allocation: The process of assigning or distributing costs to specific products, departments, activities, or cost centers based on a predetermined method or allocation basis.
Cost Analysis: The examination and evaluation of costs, expenses, or pricing structures to assess their reasonableness, competitiveness, or impact on profitability.
Cost Avoidance: The reduction or elimination of costs that would have been incurred under different circumstances or decisions.
Cost Benefit Analysis: A systematic approach to evaluating the costs and benefits of a project, investment, or decision to determine its economic viability or desirability.
Cost Control: The management and regulation of costs to ensure that they remain within planned or budgeted limits, often through monitoring, analysis, and corrective actions.
Cost Driver: A factor, activity, or event that directly or indirectly influences or impacts the cost of a product, service, process, or activity.
Cost Element: A component or category of costs that is tracked, analyzed, or allocated within an accounting or cost system, such as raw materials, labor, overhead, or distribution.
Cost Leadership: A competitive strategy in which a company aims to become the low-cost producer or provider in an industry, offering products or services at lower prices than competitors while maintaining acceptable quality and profitability.
Cost Management: The process of planning, controlling, and optimizing costs to achieve desired financial objectives, such as profitability, cost efficiency, or cost-effectiveness.
Cost of Capital: The weighted average cost of a company's debt and equity financing, representing the minimum return that investors and creditors expect for providing funds.
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): The direct costs incurred in producing or acquiring goods that are sold during a specific period, including materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead.
Cost Overrun: The excess of actual costs over budgeted or estimated costs for a project, activity, or task.
Cost Per Unit: The average cost incurred to produce, manufacture, or acquire a single unit of a product or service, calculated by dividing the total cost by the number of units produced or acquired.
Cost Plus Pricing: A pricing strategy in which a company adds a markup or profit margin to the cost of producing or acquiring a product to determine its selling price.
Cost Reduction: The process of decreasing or minimizing costs, expenses, or expenditures within an organization to improve profitability, efficiency, or competitiveness.
Cost Variance: The difference between the actual costs incurred and the budgeted or standard costs for a particular activity, project, or period.
Cost-Benefit Ratio: The ratio of the expected benefits or returns to the expected costs or investments associated with a decision, project, or action.
Countertrade: A form of international trade in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods or services, often used when monetary transactions are difficult or restricted.
Coupon: A voucher, ticket, or document that entitles the holder to a discount, rebate, or specific value reduction on a product or service.
Courier: A company or individual that provides fast and specialized delivery services for documents, packages, or small shipments.
Craft Production: A manufacturing or production method in which products are individually or manually produced by skilled artisans or craftsmen, often using traditional techniques or tools.
Critical Path: In project management, the sequence of activities that determines the minimum amount of time required to complete a project, representing the longest path from start to finish.
Critical Success Factor (CSF): A key factor or element that is essential for the success of a project, organization, or strategy.
Cross-Docking: A logistics technique in which goods or products are received, sorted, and immediately transferred to outbound vehicles for direct delivery to customers, bypassing long-term storage.
Crowdsourcing: The practice of obtaining ideas, solutions, or contributions from a large group of people, often through online platforms or communities.
Currency Risk: The potential for financial loss or uncertainty arising from fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly relevant in international trade or investments.
Current Assets: Assets that are expected to be converted into cash or used up within one year or the normal operating cycle of a business, including cash, inventory, accounts receivable, and short-term investments.
Current Liabilities: Obligations or debts that are due and payable within one year or the normal operating cycle of a business, including accounts payable, short-term loans, and accrued expenses.
Current Ratio: A financial ratio that measures a company's ability to cover its short-term liabilities or obligations with its short-term assets, calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
Customer: An individual, organization, or entity that purchases or uses goods, services, or solutions offered by a company or supplier.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM): A strategy, approach, or system used by companies to manage and enhance interactions and relationships with customers throughout the customer lifecycle.
Customer Retention: The ability of a company to retain and keep its existing customers over a specific period, often measured by customer retention rate or repeat purchase behavior.
Customer Satisfaction: The level of satisfaction or contentment experienced by customers with a product, service, or overall customer experience, often measured through surveys, feedback, or ratings.
Customer Segmentation: The process of dividing a market or customer base into distinct groups or segments based on similar characteristics, needs, behaviors, or preferences.
Customer Service: The assistance, support, or interaction provided by a company to its customers before, during, and after a purchase or transaction to ensure their satisfaction.
Customs: The government agency or authority responsible for regulating and controlling the flow of goods, people, and vehicles across national borders, enforcing customs laws, and collecting customs duties.
Customs Broker: An individual or company licensed by the government to facilitate and handle customs clearance processes, documentation, and compliance on behalf of importers or exporters.
Customs Duty: A tax or tariff imposed by a government on goods or merchandise imported or exported across its borders, often based on the value, type, or origin of the goods.
Cycle Time: The total time required to complete a process, operation, or task, including processing, waiting, inspection, transportation, and other non-value-added activities.
Cycle Time to Process Obsolete and End-of-Life Product Returns for Disposal: The time required to complete the entire process of handling, evaluating, and disposing of products that are no longer in use or deemed obsolete.
Cycle Time to Repair or Refurbish Returns for Use: The time required to repair or refurbish returned products so that they can be put back into use or resold.
Capesize Vessel: A type of bulk carrier vessel that is too large to pass through the Panama Canal or Suez Canal, typically used for transporting large quantities of dry bulk commodities such as coal or iron ore.
Captain's Protest: A written document prepared by the captain of a ship to record any disputes, damages, or irregularities that occurred during a voyage, often used for insurance claims or legal purposes.
Car Pooling: The practice of sharing car journeys with others, typically coworkers or neighbors, to reduce individual travel costs, congestion, and environmental impact.
Car Seal: A physical seal or lock applied to a railcar, truck, or container to secure the contents and ensure that it has not been tampered with during transit.
Carfloat: A specialized railcar that can be loaded onto a barge or ship for transport across bodies of water, often used in locations where a bridge or direct rail access is not available.
Cargo Manifest: A document that provides detailed information about the contents, quantities, and other relevant details of the cargo loaded on a ship, aircraft, or other transportation vehicle.
Cargo NOS: An abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Specified," used to indicate that the cargo being transported does not fall into any specific category or classification.
Cargo Preference: A policy or regulation that requires a certain percentage of government-sponsored cargo to be transported on vessels registered under a specific flag or owned by a particular country.
Cargo Tonnage: The total weight of cargo or freight being transported, typically measured in metric tons.
Carload Rate: The rate or price charged for transporting a specified quantity of goods or cargo in a single railcar, often based on weight or volume.
Carrier's Certificate: A document issued by a transportation carrier, such as a shipping line or airline, to confirm the receipt, shipment, or delivery of goods.
Cartment: A compartment or separate section within a larger cargo space, often used to organize and separate different types of goods or to meet specific transportation requirements.
CBM (CM): An abbreviation for "Cubic Meter," a unit of measurement used to quantify the volume or capacity of cargo or freight.
CE: An abbreviation for "European Conformity," a marking that indicates a product's compliance with European Union health, safety, and environmental protection standards.
Center of Gravity: The point within an object or system where the weight or mass is evenly distributed and balanced, often used in logistics and transportation to determine optimal load placement and stability.
Certificate of Inspection: A document issued by an authorized entity or inspector certifying that goods, equipment, or systems have been inspected and meet specific quality, safety, or regulatory standards.
Charter Party: A contractual agreement between a shipowner and a charterer for the hire or lease of a vessel for a specific period or voyage, outlining the terms, conditions, and responsibilities of each party.
CCC Mark: An abbreviation for "China Compulsory Certification Mark," a mandatory product certification system in China to ensure compliance with safety, health, and environmental standards.
CE Mark: A marking that indicates a product's compliance with European Union directives and regulations, allowing it to be freely marketed and sold within the European Economic Area.
CIF (Named Port): An incoterm (International Commercial Terms) that specifies that the seller is responsible for arranging and paying for the costs, insurance, and freight of the goods to a named port of destination.
CIF&C: An abbreviation for "Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Commission," referring to the total cost of goods, including insurance, freight, and any commission charges.
CIF&E: An abbreviation for "Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Exchange," indicating that the price of goods includes the cost of insurance, freight, and any exchange-related charges.
CIFCI: An abbreviation for "Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Commission Included," indicating that the total price of goods includes the cost of insurance, freight, and any commission charges.
CIFI&E: An abbreviation for "Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Interest & Exchange," indicating that the total price of goods includes the cost of insurance, freight, and any interest and exchange-related charges.
CKD: An abbreviation for "Completely Knocked Down," referring to goods or products that are partially or completely disassembled for transportation and later reassembled at their destination.
Classification Rating: A rating assigned to a transportation vehicle, such as a railcar or container, based on its construction, weight capacity, and other relevant characteristics, used for determining applicable freight rates.
Classification Society: An independent organization that establishes and applies technical standards and regulations for the design, construction, and maintenance of ships and other maritime structures.
Clayton Act: A United States federal law that prohibits certain anticompetitive practices and mergers, aiming to promote fair competition and prevent monopolies.
Clearance Limits: The defined height, width, or other dimensions that limit the maximum size of vehicles or cargo allowed to pass through a particular route, transportation facility, or clearance structure.
Cleat: A metal or wooden fitting on a vessel, dock, or platform used to secure ropes, lines, or cables, preventing them from slipping or becoming loose.
CM: An abbreviation for "Centimeter," a unit of measurement equal to one hundredth of a meter.
Coastwise: Referring to maritime transportation or trade along a country's coastline or within its territorial waters.
COD: An abbreviation for "Cash on Delivery," indicating that payment for goods or services is made at the time of delivery.
COGSA: An abbreviation for "Carriage of Goods by Sea Act," a United States federal law that governs the rights, responsibilities, and liabilities of carriers and shippers in the international transportation of goods by sea.
Collecting: The process of gathering or accumulating payments or funds from customers, clients, or debtors.
Collection: The act of collecting or gathering payments, debts, or funds owed to a company or individual.
Combination Export Mgr.: An abbreviation for "Combination Export Manager," a role or position responsible for managing and coordinating various aspects of exporting goods, including documentation, logistics, and compliance.
Combination Rate: A freight rate or price offered for the transportation of goods that involves multiple modes of transport or a combination of transportation services.
Commercial Transport Vessel: A vessel designed and used for the transportation of goods, passengers, or cargo as part of commercial activities.
Commodity: A raw material, product, or item that is bought, sold, or traded in the marketplace, often used to refer to goods that are interchangeable or standardized.
Common Law: The body of law derived from judicial decisions and custom rather than statutes, based on precedents and principles established through court rulings.
Company Security Officer: An individual designated by a company or organization to ensure compliance with security regulations, policies, and practices related to maritime or transportation security.
Compulsory Ship: A vessel that is required by law or regulation to carry certain types of cargo or to meet specific safety, security, or environmental standards.
Concealed Damage: Damage to goods or cargo that is not immediately apparent or visible upon receipt or inspection, often discovered after the shipment has been accepted or opened.
Confirmed Letter of Credit: A letter of credit issued by a bank that provides an additional guarantee of payment to the beneficiary, typically requested when the issuing bank's creditworthiness or reliability is in question.
Confirming Bank: The bank that adds its confirmation to a letter of credit, undertaking to honor or pay the beneficiary's drafts or documents under specified conditions.
Connecting Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that provides onward transportation services to connect a shipment from its origin to its final destination when multiple modes of transport are involved.
Consignee Mark: A specific marking, symbol, or label applied to goods or cargo to identify the consignee or intended recipient.
Connecting Carrier Agreement: A contractual agreement between two or more carriers that outlines the terms, conditions, and responsibilities for the transfer and transportation of goods between different modes of transport.
Construction Differential Subsidy: A financial subsidy or incentive provided by a government to promote the construction or modernization of ships or other maritime assets.
Consular Visa: A visa issued by a foreign country's consulate or embassy to allow an individual to enter and stay in that country for a specific purpose, such as tourism, work, or study.
Consumption Entry (CE): A customs entry or declaration made for goods that are intended for consumption within a specific country or territory, indicating that they will not be re-exported.
Container Booking: The process of reserving or securing space for a shipping container on a vessel or at a container terminal, typically arranged by the shipper or freight forwarder.
Container Freight Station: A facility or warehouse where containers are loaded, unloaded, stored, and consolidated or deconsolidated for transportation.
Container Manifest: A document that lists the contents, details, and sequence of containers loaded on a vessel or transportation vehicle, often used for customs clearance, security, and tracking purposes.
Container Pool: A shared inventory or fleet of shipping containers owned or managed by multiple parties, often used to increase efficiency and availability of containers for shipping purposes.
Container Security Initiative (CSI): A program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to enhance security for containerized cargo by identifying and screening high-risk containers at foreign ports before they are shipped to the United States.
C&F: An abbreviation for "Cost and Freight," an incoterm that indicates the seller is responsible for the cost and freight charges of delivering goods to the named port of destination.
Cable Seal: A type of security seal or lock consisting of a cable or wire that is used to secure containers, trailers, or other cargo-carrying units.
CAD (Computer-Aided Design): The use of computer software and systems to create, modify, and analyze designs, typically used in engineering, architecture, and product development.
CMR (Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road): An international treaty that governs the rights, obligations, and liability of parties involved in the international road transportation of goods.
CNEE (Consignee): An abbreviation for "Consignee," referring to the individual or company that is the designated recipient of goods or cargo.
CAT (Customs Assessment Tax): A tax or duty imposed by customs authorities on imported or exported goods based on their assessed value or other factors.
Categorical Data: Data that is divided into distinct categories or groups, often used in statistical analysis and modeling to represent qualitative or discrete variables.
CBB (Collect Bills of Lading): A document issued by a carrier or shipping line acknowledging the receipt of goods and the contract for their transportation, indicating that the freight charges will be collected from the consignee.
CBSA (Canada Border Services Agency): The federal agency in Canada responsible for managing customs, immigration, and border security, ensuring compliance with import and export regulations.
CBM (Cubic Meter): A unit of measurement used to quantify the volume or capacity of cargo or freight, equal to the volume of a cube with sides of one meter.
CBT (Computer-Based Training): A form of educational or training program delivered through computer systems or online platforms, allowing learners to access and interact with learning materials and assessments.
CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television): A system of video cameras and monitors used for surveillance and security purposes, typically in closed or limited-access areas.
CE Marking: A marking that indicates a product's compliance with applicable European Union directives and regulations regarding health, safety, and environmental protection.
CEIV (Center of Excellence for Independent Validators): A certification program established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to ensure pharmaceutical handling and transportation standards are met by air cargo stakeholders.
CHA (Customs House Agent): A licensed individual or company authorized to act on behalf of importers and exporters in customs-related matters, such as clearance, documentation, and compliance.
CIM (Computer-Integrated Manufacturing): A system or approach that integrates computer technology and automation into various aspects of manufacturing, including design, production, and control processes.
CIT (Centralized Inventory Control): A method or system for managing and controlling inventory from a central location, often using technology and software to optimize stock levels, replenishment, and distribution.
CKD (Completely Knocked Down): Referring to goods or products that are partially or completely disassembled into individual components or parts for transportation and later reassembled at their destination.
Claims Management: The process of handling and resolving claims or disputes related to damaged, lost, or delayed goods or cargo during transportation.
Clean Bill of Lading: A bill of lading issued by the carrier or its agent acknowledging the receipt of goods in apparent good condition and without any notations of damage or irregularities.
CAFTA-DR: An abbreviation for "Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement," a trade agreement between the United States, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, aimed at reducing barriers to trade and promoting economic integration.
Canada Customs Invoice: A document required by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) for the importation of goods into Canada, providing details about the shipment, including the value, quantity, and description of the goods, as well as customs-related information.
Cargo Declaration: A document or form that provides information about the cargo being transported, including details such as the nature of the goods, their weight, dimensions, packaging, and any applicable customs or regulatory requirements.
CARICOM: An abbreviation for the Caribbean Community, an organization composed of 15 member states and 5 associate members in the Caribbean region, aiming to promote economic integration, cooperation, and development among its members.
CBP: An abbreviation for U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the federal agency responsible for the enforcement of customs, immigration, and border control laws in the United States.
CCL: An abbreviation for Commerce Control List, a list maintained by the U.S. Department of Commerce that identifies items subject to export controls and regulations.
Certificate of Conformity (CoC): A document issued by a certifying body or authority to confirm that a product, system, or process meets specified standards, regulations, or requirements.
Certificate of Free Sale: A document issued by a competent authority, typically a government agency, to certify that goods being exported are freely sold or distributed in the country of origin, indicating compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Certificate of Origin (COO): A document that certifies the country of origin of goods and is typically required for customs clearance, import duties, or to qualify for preferential treatment under trade agreements.
CFR (Cost and Freight): An incoterm (international commercial term) that indicates the seller's responsibility for the cost and freight charges of delivering goods to the named port of destination.
Chapter Notes: Explanatory notes provided in the tariff schedule or harmonized system that provide additional information or clarification about specific chapters, headings, or subheadings.
Chamber Stamp: A stamp or seal applied by a chamber of commerce or similar organization to certify the authenticity or accuracy of documents, such as certificates of origin or commercial invoices.
Chock: A device or block used to secure or immobilize wheels or other parts of a vehicle or cargo to prevent movement or shifting during transportation.
CIF (Cost, Insurance, and Freight): An incoterm that indicates the seller's responsibility for the cost, insurance, and freight charges of delivering goods to the named port of destination.
CM and cm: Abbreviations for centimeter (cm), a unit of measurement equal to one hundredth of a meter, and centimeter(s) (cm), used to indicate dimensions or sizes in the metric system.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): A publication containing the general and permanent rules and regulations issued by the executive departments and agencies of the U.S. federal government.
Commerce Country Chart: A document or tool that provides information on export control requirements and licensing policies for specific countries, helping exporters determine if an export license is required for their goods.
Concealed Loss/Concealed Damage: Loss or damage to goods that is not immediately apparent or visible upon delivery, requiring inspection or discovery at a later time.
Container Load:Refers to goods or cargo that are loaded into a shipping container for transportation.
CPT (Carriage Paid To): An incoterm that indicates the seller's responsibility for the cost and risk of delivering goods to the named place of destination, but not for the import customs clearance.
C-TPAT: An abbreviation for the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, a voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to enhance the security of international trade and supply chains.
Cu.: An abbreviation for cubic, used to denote volume measurements, often associated with the measurement of cargo or freight capacity.
Customhouse: A government building or office where customs officials carry out customs-related functions, such as processing imports, collecting duties, and enforcing customs regulations.
Customs Bonded Warehouse: A warehouse or facility authorized by customs authorities where imported goods can be stored without payment of duties until they are cleared for entry or re-exported.
Customs Entry: The formal declaration or submission of information and documentation to customs authorities regarding imported or exported goods, typically including details about the goods, their value, and any applicable duties or taxes.
Customs of the Port (COP): The established practices, rules, and regulations governing customs procedures and operations at a specific port or customs jurisdiction.
Customs Value Only: A declaration or invoice used for customs purposes that specifies the value of goods being imported or exported, excluding transportation and insurance costs.
Cut-Off Time: The latest time or deadline by which certain activities or processes must be completed or submitted to meet specific requirements or schedules, often used in logistics or transportation to ensure timely processing and delivery.
Dangerous Goods: Refers to goods or substances that are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property, or the environment, and are regulated and classified for transportation according to specific international and national regulations.
Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA): An organization that develops and promotes standards for electronic data interchange (EDI) and business-to-business (B2B) communications in various industries, including logistics and supply chain.
Date Code: A code or label used to indicate the manufacturing or production date of a product, typically for tracking purposes, quality control, or expiration date management.
Days of Supply: The number of days a company's inventory is expected to last based on current inventory levels and the average daily consumption or sales rate.
DC: An abbreviation for Distribution Center, which is a facility or warehouse used for the storage, consolidation, and distribution of goods to retailers, wholesalers, or end customers.
Deadhead: Refers to an empty return trip of a transportation vehicle, such as a truck or aircraft, without carrying any cargo or passengers.
Deadweight Tons (DWT): A measurement used in shipping to represent the carrying capacity or total weight of a vessel, including cargo, fuel, provisions, and other items, excluding the weight of the vessel itself.
Decision Support System (DSS): An information system or software application that provides analysis, data, and tools to support decision-making processes, often used in logistics and supply chain management to optimize operations and planning.
Declaration of Dangerous Goods: A document or form required for the transportation of hazardous or dangerous goods, providing detailed information about the nature, classification, packaging, and handling instructions for the goods.
Declared Value for Carriage: The value declared by the shipper or consignor of goods for the purpose of determining the transportation charges, liability, and insurance coverage.
Deconsolidator: A company or service provider that specializes in breaking down consolidated shipments or containers into individual consignments for distribution or delivery to multiple destinations.
Dedicated Contract Carriage: A transportation arrangement in which a carrier provides dedicated equipment, drivers, and services to a specific shipper or customer under a contractual agreement.
Defective goods inventory (DGI): Inventory or stock that consists of goods or products that are defective, damaged, or deemed unsuitable for sale or use.
Delivery Appointment: A scheduled time or arrangement between the shipper or carrier and the recipient or consignee for the delivery of goods, often required for efficient logistics operations or when specific delivery requirements are needed.
Delivery-Duty-Paid (DDP): An incoterm that indicates the seller's responsibility for delivering the goods to the buyer's named place of destination, including all transportation costs, duties, taxes, and customs clearance.
Delivery Instructions: Specific instructions or requirements provided by the shipper or consignor to the carrier or logistics service provider regarding the delivery of goods, such as delivery location, special handling, or recipient preferences.
Delivery Order: A document or instruction issued by the carrier or logistics provider to the consignee or recipient, authorizing the release or delivery of goods to the designated party.
Delivery Performance to Commit Date: A measure of a company's or carrier's ability to deliver goods or services within the agreed-upon or promised timeframe or commitment date.
Delivery Performance to Request Date: A measure of a company's or carrier's ability to deliver goods or services within the requested or desired timeframe or date specified by the customer or consignee.
Delta Nu Alpha: A professional organization or fraternity focused on transportation and logistics education, networking, and career development.
Demand Chain Management: The strategic planning, coordination, and management of all activities and processes involved in meeting customer demand and delivering products or services, including demand forecasting, inventory management, production planning, and order fulfillment.
Demand Pull: A supply chain management concept in which production or replenishment activities are initiated based on actual customer demand signals or orders, aiming to minimize inventory and improve responsiveness.
Demand Side Analysis: An analysis or assessment of the factors, trends, and variables that influence customer demand for products or services, often used in market research or demand forecasting.
Demand Signal: Information or data that indicates customer demand or buying intentions, often captured through various channels such as sales orders, point-of-sale systems, or market research.
Demand Supply Balancing: The process of aligning or balancing the supply of products or services with customer demand, taking into account factors such as lead times, production capacities, inventory levels, and market conditions.
Demurrage: A charge or penalty imposed on the shipper or consignee for exceeding the allowed free time for loading or unloading cargo at a port, terminal, or other facility.
Denied Party Listing (DPL): A list or database maintained by government authorities or organizations that identifies individuals, companies, or entities with whom trade or business transactions are prohibited or restricted due to legal, regulatory, or security reasons.
Density: In logistics and shipping, it refers to the mass or weight of goods per unit volume, often used to determine transportation costs or pricing based on weight or volumetric weight, whichever is higher.
Density rate: A freight or transportation rate structure based on the density of the shipped goods, calculated by dividing the weight of the shipment by its volume.
Deregulation: The removal or relaxation of government regulations or controls in industries or sectors such as transportation, allowing for increased competition, market forces, and operational flexibility.
Derived demand: Refers to the demand for goods or services that arises as a result of the demand for other related goods or services, often used in supply chain management to understand the interdependencies and demand patterns in complex supply chains.
Destination: The intended or final location where goods or cargo are to be delivered, often used in logistics and shipping to specify the endpoint of a transportation journey.
Detention: A charge or penalty imposed on the shipper or consignee for exceeding the allowed time for the use of transportation equipment, such as containers or trailers, beyond the agreed-upon or standard free time. Detention charges compensate the equipment owner for the additional time the equipment is tied up and unavailable for other use.
Devanning: The process of unloading or unpacking goods from a container, trailer, or other transportation equipment.
DFMA (Design for Manufacture/Assembly): A design approach or methodology that aims to optimize the manufacturing or assembly processes of a product by considering factors such as ease of manufacturing, component standardization, simplification, and cost reduction.
DFZ (Duty Free Zone): A designated area or zone where goods can be imported, stored, processed, or distributed without incurring customs duties or taxes until they are released into the domestic market.
Differential: A price or cost difference between two or more options, often used in logistics and shipping to refer to variations in rates, charges, or costs based on specific factors or conditions.
Direct Channel: A distribution channel or sales channel that involves direct selling and interaction between the producer or manufacturer and the end customer, bypassing intermediaries such as wholesalers or retailers.
Direct Production Material: The materials or components used in the manufacturing or production process of a product, including raw materials, parts, or assemblies that directly contribute to the final product.
Direct Retail Locations: Physical retail stores or outlets owned or operated directly by a manufacturer or brand, allowing for direct sales to customers without involving third-party retailers.
Direct Store Delivery (DSD): A distribution method in which products are delivered directly from the manufacturer or distributor to individual retail stores, bypassing centralized distribution centers or warehouses.
Direct-to-Store (DTS) Delivery: A logistics or supply chain strategy in which products are shipped directly from the manufacturer or supplier to individual retail stores, bypassing intermediate distribution points.
Discharge Port: The port or terminal where cargo or goods are unloaded from a vessel, aircraft, or other means of transportation.
Discrete Manufacturing: A manufacturing process in which distinct or individual items are produced through assembly, fabrication, or machining processes, typically involving the production of separate units or products rather than continuous or bulk production.
Disintermediation: The removal or elimination of intermediaries or middlemen in a supply chain or distribution channel, often facilitated by advancements in technology or changes in market dynamics.
Dispatching: The process of assigning or scheduling resources, such as vehicles, drivers, or equipment, for the execution of specific transportation tasks or activities.
Distributed Inventory: The practice of strategically placing inventory or stock at multiple locations or distribution centers to ensure availability and improve responsiveness to customer demands or market conditions.
Distribution: The process of moving goods or products from the point of origin to the point of consumption or use, including activities such as transportation, warehousing, inventory management, and order fulfillment.
Distribution Center (DC): A facility or warehouse used for the storage, consolidation, and distribution of goods to retailers, wholesalers, or end customers. It serves as a hub for inventory management, order fulfillment, and logistics operations.
Distribution Channel: The path or route through which products or services are distributed from the manufacturer or producer to the end customer or consumer, involving various intermediaries such as wholesalers, retailers, agents, or distributors.
Distribution Channel Management: The strategic planning, coordination, and control of distribution channels to ensure effective and efficient product flow, channel partner relationships, and customer satisfaction.
Distribution Planning: The process of determining optimal distribution strategies, routes, and schedules to ensure timely and cost-effective delivery of goods or products to customers or distribution points.
Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP): A method or system for managing inventory, replenishment, and distribution activities based on forecasted or actual customer demand and inventory policies.
Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II): An advanced version of Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP), incorporating additional elements such as capacity planning, production scheduling, and resource optimization to effectively manage distribution and supply chain activities.
Distribution Warehouse: A facility or building used for storing and organizing inventory or goods for distribution purposes, often equipped with equipment and systems for efficient handling, picking, and shipping operations.
Distributor: A company or entity that purchases goods or products from manufacturers or suppliers and sells them to retailers, wholesalers, or end customers, often acting as an intermediary in the distribution process.
Diversion: The act of redirecting or changing the planned route, destination, or delivery instructions for goods or shipments during transit, often due to unforeseen circumstances, changes in market demand, or operational requirements.
DOA (Dead on Arrival): Refers to goods or products that are found to be non-functional, damaged, or unusable upon delivery or receipt. DOA items often need to be returned, replaced, or repaired.
Dock Receipt: A document issued by a carrier or shipping line to acknowledge the receipt of goods or cargo at a dock or port facility, providing details such as the quantity, condition, and identification of the received goods.
Document: A written or printed record that provides information, evidence, or proof of a transaction, event, or process. In logistics and shipping, documents play a crucial role in facilitating trade, transportation, and customs procedures.
Documentation: The process of preparing, organizing, and managing the necessary documents and paperwork associated with trade, transportation, or legal requirements, including invoices, bills of lading, customs declarations, and certificates.
Domestic Trunk Line Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that operates long-haul or intercity transportation services within a single country, typically involving the movement of freight or cargo.
Door to Door: A transportation or logistics service that covers the entire movement of goods or cargo from the shipper's or seller's location to the buyer's or consignee's location, providing a seamless and integrated delivery process.
Door to Port: A transportation or logistics service that involves the movement of goods or cargo from the shipper's or seller's location to a specified port of destination, where the responsibility for further transportation or clearance transfers to the buyer or consignee.
Double Bottoms: Refers to a type of road trailer or container chassis with two layers or tiers of load-carrying capacity, allowing for the transportation of two separate loads on the same trailer.
Double-Pallet Jack: A type of manual or powered handling equipment used to lift and move two pallets simultaneously, increasing efficiency and productivity in warehouse or distribution operations.
Doubles: Refers to a combination of two trailers or semi-trailers being pulled by a single truck or tractor, commonly used in certain regions or countries for long-haul transportation.
Download: The process of transferring or receiving data or files from a remote server or computer to a local device, often used in the context of accessing electronic documents, software, or updates.
Downstream: Refers to activities or processes that occur later in the supply chain, closer to the end customer or consumer. Downstream activities typically involve distribution, retailing, marketing, and customer service.
DPL (Denied Party Listing): A list or database maintained by government authorities or organizations that identifies individuals, companies, or entities with whom trade or business transactions are restricted or prohibited due to legal, regulatory, or security concerns.
Drawback: A refund or reimbursement of customs duties or tariffs paid on imported goods that are subsequently re-exported or used in the production of goods for export, aimed at promoting international trade and competitiveness.
Drayage: The transportation of goods or cargo over a short distance, often within a port, terminal, or between a transportation hub and a local destination, typically performed by specialized drayage carriers or trucks.
Drayage Firms: Companies or service providers specializing in drayage services, offering trucking and transportation services for short-distance movements of goods or containers.
Driving Time Regulations: Legal regulations or restrictions that govern the maximum allowed driving hours, rest periods, and other related activities for commercial vehicle drivers, aimed at ensuring safety and preventing driver fatigue.
Drop: The act of delivering or unloading goods or cargo at a specified location or point, often used in the context of last-mile delivery or local distribution.
Drop Ship: A fulfillment method in which a retailer or seller accepts orders from customers but does not keep the products in stock. Instead, the retailer arranges for the manufacturer, supplier, or a third-party to ship the products directly to the customer.
DRP (Distribution Requirements Planning): A method or system for determining the optimal inventory levels, replenishment quantities, and distribution strategies to meet customer demand and maintain appropriate stock levels at various locations or distribution centers.
DRP II (Distribution Resource Planning): An advanced version of Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP), incorporating additional elements such as capacity planning, production scheduling, and resource optimization to effectively manage distribution and supply chain activities.
Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR): A scheduling and control method derived from the Theory of Constraints (TOC), used to optimize production or manufacturing processes by synchronizing operations based on the constraint or bottleneck, ensuring the flow of materials and resources.
DSD (Direct Store Delivery): A distribution method in which suppliers or manufacturers deliver products directly to retail stores, bypassing central distribution centers, allowing for faster replenishment, reduced inventory holding, and improved freshness of goods.
DSS (Decision Support System): An information system or software application that provides analysis, data, and tools to support decision-making processes, often used in logistics and supply chain management to optimize operations and planning. DSS can assist with forecasting, scenario analysis, optimization, and other decision-making activities.
DTS (Direct-to-Store) Delivery: A logistics or supply chain strategy in which products are shipped directly from the manufacturer or supplier to individual retail stores, bypassing intermediate distribution points.
Dual Operation: The ability of a transportation or logistics service provider to handle both inbound and outbound shipments or movements, often involving coordination and optimization of resources for efficient operations.
Dual rate system: A pricing or billing system that differentiates rates or charges based on specific factors or conditions, such as different rates for peak and off-peak periods or different rates for different customer segments.
Dumping: The practice of selling goods or products in a foreign market at prices lower than their normal value or production cost, often with the intent of gaining market share or eliminating competition, and potentially violating international trade regulations.
Dunnage: Materials or padding used to protect and secure cargo during transportation or storage, often placed between goods to prevent damage, movement, or shifting.
DUNS Number: A unique nine-digit identification number assigned to businesses or organizations by Dun & Bradstreet, widely used as a standard identifier for company information and transactions in various industries.
Duty: A tax, tariff, or fee imposed by a government on imported or exported goods, typically based on the value, quantity, or classification of the goods. Duties are collected to generate revenue, protect domestic industries, or regulate international trade.
Duty Drawback: The refund or exemption of customs duties paid on imported goods that are subsequently exported or used in the production of goods for export, aimed at promoting international trade and competitiveness.
Duty Free Zone (DFZ): A designated area or zone where goods can be imported, stored, processed, or distributed without incurring customs duties or taxes until they are released into the domestic market.
Dynamic Process Control (DPC): A control or management approach that continuously monitors and adjusts processes, operations, or systems in real-time based on changing conditions, data, or objectives, aiming to improve efficiency, quality, or performance.
D&H (Delivery and Handling): A term used to describe the charges or fees associated with the delivery, handling, and transportation of goods or products, often included in the pricing or cost structure of a transaction.
D.B.A. (Doing Business As): A legal term used to indicate that a person or company is conducting business under a name different from their legal or registered name, often used for branding, marketing, or operational purposes.
DDC (Destination Delivery Charge): A fee or surcharge imposed by carriers or logistics providers to cover the costs associated with delivering goods or cargo to a specific destination or location, often applied in international shipping or transportation.
Deadweight Cargo: The weight of the cargo or goods carried by a ship, aircraft, or other means of transportation, including the weight of the cargo itself and any associated packaging, securing, or handling materials.
Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): The maximum weight of cargo, fuel, supplies, and personnel that a vessel can carry when fully loaded, including the cargo weight and all other items necessary for the voyage.
Deconsolidation Point: A location or facility where consolidated shipments or containers are broken down into individual orders or consignments for further distribution or delivery.
Deficit Weight: The difference between the actual weight of a shipment and the minimum weight required for certain freight rates or pricing structures, often resulting in additional charges or adjustments.
DEMDES (Design Engineering Manufacturing Development and Engineering Services): A term used to describe an integrated process or approach that combines design, engineering, and manufacturing activities to develop and produce products or systems.
Depot, Container: A facility or location used for the storage, maintenance, repair, and handling of shipping containers, typically owned or operated by container leasing companies or logistics providers.
Despatch: The process of sending or dispatching goods, often involving the preparation, packing, and arrangement for transportation of goods to the designated destination.
Destination Control Statements: Statements or declarations placed on shipping documents, such as bills of lading or invoices, indicating export control requirements, restrictions, or conditions for the goods being shipped to a specific destination or country.
Det Norske Veritas: A global classification society and independent foundation that provides services for the maritime, oil and gas, and other industries, including classification, certification, and risk management services.
DF Car: A type of railcar or freight car designed for transporting goods or products in bulk, often used for the transportation of dry commodities such as grains, coal, or minerals.
Discrepancy Letter of Credit: A document or notification sent by a bank to the beneficiary of a letter of credit (LC) indicating discrepancies or inconsistencies in the documents submitted for payment or compliance under the terms of the LC.
Dispatch: The act of sending out or scheduling resources, such as vehicles, drivers, or equipment, to fulfill transportation tasks or orders, often involving coordination and optimization to ensure timely delivery.
Displacement: In logistics and shipping, displacement refers to the act of moving or removing cargo or goods from a location, often in preparation for transportation or to make room for other items.
Division: A unit or segment within a company, organization, or logistics operation, often representing a specific product line, business area, or geographical region.
Dockage: Charges or fees imposed on vessels or ships for using or occupying a dock, pier, or port facility, typically based on the vessel's size, duration of stay, or services rendered.
Docket: A record or document that contains details, information, or instructions related to a specific shipment, transaction, or legal case, often used for reference, tracking, or documentation purposes.
Documents Against Acceptance (D/A): A payment term in international trade where the exporter or seller presents documents, such as bills of exchange or drafts, to the buyer or importer, who agrees to accept and pay the documents at a specified future date.
Documents Against Payment (D/P): A payment term in international trade where the exporter or seller presents documents, such as bills of exchange or drafts, to the buyer or importer, who agrees to make payment upon receipt of the documents.
Dolly: A type of handling equipment used for moving heavy or large loads, typically consisting of a platform or frame with wheels or casters, allowing for easy maneuverability and transport.
Door-to-Door: A transportation or logistics service that covers the entire movement of goods or cargo from the shipper's or seller's location to the buyer's or consignee's location, providing a seamless and integrated delivery process.
D.O.T. (Department of Transportation): A government department or agency responsible for overseeing and regulating transportation activities, infrastructure, and safety within a specific jurisdiction, often at the national or federal level.
Draft: In the context of shipping and trade, a draft refers to a written order or document issued by one party, such as a buyer or importer, directing another party, such as a bank, to make a payment to a specified beneficiary or seller.
Draft, Bank: A type of draft or payment instrument issued by a bank on behalf of its customers, often used in international trade transactions as a means of payment or credit.
Draft, Clean: A type of draft or payment instrument that does not require any accompanying documents or conditions, typically used for immediate payment upon presentation.
Draft, Date: A draft that is payable on a specific date or within a specified period after the date of issuance.
Draft, Discounted: A draft or payment instrument that is sold or discounted by the payee or holder to a financial institution before its maturity date, allowing for early access to funds and potentially receiving a discounted value.
Draft, Sight: A draft that is payable upon presentation or upon sight, often used for immediate payment or settlement.
Draft, Time: A draft that is payable at a specified future date or within a specified period after its issuance.
Drawee: The party or entity on whom a draft or payment instrument is drawn, typically the buyer or importer who is obligated to make the payment.
DRFS (Dedicated Refrigerated Freight System): A specialized transportation system or service that focuses on the transportation of goods or cargo requiring temperature-controlled or refrigerated conditions, often used for perishable or sensitive products.
DSU (Distribution Supply Unit): A standardized unit or container used for storage, handling, and transportation within a distribution or supply chain system, typically designed to optimize space utilization and facilitate efficient material flow.
Dry Cargo: General goods or merchandise that do not require temperature control or special handling during transportation, often including items such as textiles, machinery, consumer goods, or non-perishable products.
Dry-Bulk Container: A type of shipping container designed for the transportation of dry bulk cargo, such as grains, ores, or granular materials, often featuring specialized discharge openings or mechanisms for efficient loading and unloading.
Dutiable Value: The value of imported goods or cargo on which customs duties or tariffs are calculated, typically based on the transaction value, including the cost of the goods, insurance, and freight charges.
Dangerous Goods Declaration: A document or form that provides detailed information about hazardous or dangerous goods being transported, including their classification, packaging, labeling, and handling requirements, in compliance with international regulations and safety standards.
DAP (Delivered at Place): An incoterm (international commercial term) that specifies the seller's responsibility to deliver the goods at a named place of destination, often including the costs and risks associated with transportation and import clearance.
Destination Control Statement: A statement or notice included on shipping documents, such as bills of lading or commercial invoices, indicating that the goods being exported are intended for a specific destination and may be subject to export control regulations or restrictions.
DDTC (Directorate of Defense Trade Controls): A U.S. government agency responsible for regulating and licensing the export and temporary import of defense articles and services, enforcing compliance with the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).
DBA (Doing Business As): A legal term used to indicate that a person or company is conducting business under a name different from their legal or registered name, often used for branding, marketing, or operational purposes.
DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): An incoterm (international commercial term) that specifies the seller's responsibility to deliver the goods at the buyer's named place of destination, including all costs, taxes, and duties paid, and assuming all risks until delivery.
Deemed Export: The transfer, release, or disclosure of controlled technology or technical data to a foreign national or entity within the country, which is considered to be equivalent to an actual export of that technology or data to the foreign country.
Delivery Receipt: A document or proof of delivery that acknowledges the receipt of goods or cargo by the consignee or recipient, often signed or endorsed by the receiving party as confirmation of the delivery.
Demurrage/Detention: Charges or fees imposed on shippers or consignees for exceeding the allotted free time for loading or unloading containers at a terminal, port, or other facilities, compensating for the delay and occupation of equipment or space beyond the agreed period.
Denied Party Screening: The process of screening individuals, companies, or entities against government-issued denied party lists, restricted party lists, or sanctions lists to ensure compliance with export control regulations and avoid prohibited transactions.
Discrepancy: A difference, inconsistency, or nonconformity between two or more documents, records, or pieces of information, often requiring investigation, clarification, or resolution.
Distribution Center: A facility or warehouse used for receiving, storing, sorting, and distributing goods or products within a supply chain or distribution network, often serving as a central hub for order fulfillment and inventory management.
Dock: A platform or area in a warehouse, terminal, or facility where trucks, vehicles, or containers are loaded, unloaded, or parked for loading and unloading purposes.
DOT (Department of Transportation): A government department or agency responsible for overseeing and regulating transportation activities, infrastructure, and safety within a specific jurisdiction, often at the national or federal level.
DPU (Delivered at Place Unloaded): An incoterm (international commercial term) that specifies the seller's responsibility to deliver the goods at the buyer's named place of destination, unloaded from the arriving means of transport, often including the costs and risks associated with transportation and import clearance.
Due Diligence: A comprehensive and systematic investigation, research, or assessment conducted by a buyer, investor, or business entity to evaluate the legal, financial, operational, or regulatory aspects of a potential transaction, investment, or partnership.
EAN.UCC (European Article Numbering/Uniform Code Council): A global system for product identification and barcoding, widely used in the retail industry to ensure accurate and efficient inventory management and tracking.
Early Supplier Involvement (ESI): The practice of involving suppliers in the product development process at an early stage to leverage their expertise, optimize design, improve quality, and achieve cost savings.
ECO (Engineering Change Order): A documented request to modify or change the design, specifications, or manufacturing process of a product, typically initiated by engineering departments to address issues, improve performance, or incorporate updates.
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ): A formula used in inventory management to determine the optimal order quantity that minimizes total inventory holding costs and ordering costs.
Economic Value Added (EVA): A financial performance measure that calculates the value a company generates in excess of its cost of capital, indicating how much value is created by its operations and investments.
Economy of Scale: The cost advantages and efficiencies that result from increasing the scale of production or operation, often leading to lower unit costs as production volumes or business size expand.
ECR (Efficient Consumer Response): A collaborative approach between retailers, suppliers, and other supply chain partners to optimize inventory management, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction by synchronizing supply and demand.
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): The computer-to-computer exchange of structured business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, and shipping notices, in a standardized electronic format, enabling seamless information flow between trading partners.
EDI Interchange: The process of exchanging electronic business documents between trading partners using the EDI format, typically facilitated through value-added networks or direct connections.
EDIA (Electronic Data Interchange Association): An industry association or organization that promotes the adoption, standardization, and best practices of electronic data interchange (EDI) among businesses.
EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transport): A widely used international standard for structuring and exchanging business documents electronically, particularly in the context of global trade and logistics.
EDI Standards: The established formats, syntax, and guidelines for structuring and transmitting electronic business documents using EDI, ensuring compatibility and interoperability between different trading partners and systems.
EDI Transmission: The process of sending or receiving electronic business documents using EDI, often involving secure and reliable communication protocols and networks.
EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer): The electronic transfer of funds from one bank account to another, typically used for making payments, settling invoices, or conducting financial transactions electronically.
Electronic Mail (E-Mail): A digital communication method for sending and receiving messages, documents, and files electronically over computer networks, enabling quick and efficient correspondence between individuals and businesses.
Embargo: A government-imposed restriction or prohibition on trade, usually in the form of a ban on exporting or importing certain goods or engaging in specific transactions with particular countries or entities.
End Item: The final product or finished good that is ready for sale or use by the end consumer, often assembled or manufactured from various components or subassemblies.
End-of-Life Inventory: Inventory consisting of products or materials that are no longer in demand, obsolete, or nearing the end of their useful life, requiring special management and disposition strategies.
Engineering Change: A modification or alteration made to the design, engineering specifications, or manufacturing process of a product, often to improve performance, fix issues, or incorporate updates.
Engineer to Order: A manufacturing strategy where products are designed and engineered according to specific customer requirements or project specifications, usually involving customization or unique configurations.
Enroute: The state or condition of being in transit or on the way to a specific destination or location, often referring to the movement of goods, shipments, or transportation vehicles.
Entry Form: A document or form filled out and submitted to customs authorities to declare details of imported or exported goods, providing information on the nature, quantity, value, and other relevant data for customs clearance.
Enveloping: The process of enclosing or packaging products or materials within protective covers, containers, or wrapping materials to ensure their safe handling, storage, or transportation.
Environmentally Sensitive Engineering: The practice of designing and engineering products, processes, or systems with a focus on minimizing environmental impact, reducing waste, conserving resources, and promoting sustainability.
EPC or ePC (Electronic Product Code): A unique identifier or code assigned to a specific product or item using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) or other automatic identification technologies, enabling accurate tracking and traceability throughout the supply chain.
Equipment I.D. (Identification): A unique identifier or code assigned to a specific piece of equipment or machinery to distinguish and track it within a facility or organization.
Equipment Positioning: The strategic placement or arrangement of equipment, machinery, or assets within a facility or operational area to optimize workflow, space utilization, and resource efficiency.
Ergonomic: Relating to the design and arrangement of workspaces, equipment, tools, or systems that aim to enhance efficiency, comfort, safety, and well-being for workers, considering human factors and capabilities.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning): A comprehensive business management software system that integrates various core functions, such as finance, human resources, supply chain, manufacturing, and customer relationship management, into a unified platform for efficient and synchronized operations.
ESI (Early Supplier Involvement): The practice of involving suppliers at an early stage of product development or project planning to leverage their expertise, contribute to design decisions, and ensure smooth collaboration for successful outcomes.
Evaluated Receipts Settlement (ERS): A procurement and payment method where invoices are automatically generated and processed based on the receipt and evaluation of goods or services, eliminating the need for traditional invoice matching and reconciliation.
Exclusive Patronage Agreements: Agreements or contracts between a supplier or manufacturer and a customer that establish exclusive rights or privileges, such as sole distribution rights, loyalty programs, or preferential treatment, in exchange for committed business.
Exclusive Use: The dedicated or sole use of a specific transportation vehicle, container, or equipment by a single customer or shipment, ensuring exclusive control, security, and prioritized handling throughout the transportation process.
Exempt Carrier: A transportation carrier that is exempt from certain regulations, requirements, or taxes based on specific criteria or circumstances, such as carriers transporting only exempt goods, operating within limited geographic areas, or meeting certain size or weight restrictions.
Expediting: The process of accelerating or expediting the movement, processing, or completion of orders, shipments, or activities to meet urgent or time-sensitive deadlines, often involving proactive coordination, communication, and prioritization.
Expert System: A computer-based system or software program that utilizes artificial intelligence and knowledge-based rules to mimic human expertise, provide problem-solving solutions, or make informed decisions within a specific domain or field.
Export: The act of sending or shipping goods, products, or services from one country to another for the purpose of trade, sale, distribution, or use in a foreign market.
Export Compliance: The adherence to legal, regulatory, and trade compliance requirements when engaging in export activities, including licensing, documentation, customs regulations, trade restrictions, and international trade laws.
Export Broker: A specialist or intermediary who facilitates export transactions between sellers or manufacturers and foreign buyers, providing expertise in export regulations, market access, logistics, and trade facilitation.
Export Declaration: A document or electronic filing submitted to customs authorities that provides detailed information about exported goods, including their description, value, origin, destination, and compliance with export regulations.
Export License: A government-issued authorization or permit granting permission for the exportation of specific goods or technologies, often required for controlled, sensitive, or restricted products due to national security, trade restrictions, or other regulatory considerations.
Export Management Company: A business entity that assists manufacturers or suppliers in exporting their products to foreign markets, providing services such as market research, international marketing, logistics coordination, and distribution network development.
Export Sales Contract: A legally binding agreement or contract between an exporter and an overseas buyer, outlining the terms, conditions, and obligations for the sale, delivery, and payment of exported goods or services.
Exporter Identification Number (EIN): A unique identification number assigned to exporters by customs authorities or government agencies to track and monitor export activities, often required for compliance, reporting, and documentation purposes.
Express: A fast and expedited shipping or delivery service that prioritizes speed and time efficiency, often characterized by shorter transit times, dedicated transportation, and guaranteed delivery windows.
Extended Enterprise: An organizational concept that encompasses the integration and collaboration of external entities, such as suppliers, distributors, customers, and partners, into the overall business operations and value chain, enabling shared information, resources, and capabilities.
Extensible Markup Language (XML): A markup language used for structuring and organizing data in a human-readable and machine-readable format, facilitating data exchange, interoperability, and information sharing across different systems and platforms.
External Factory: An outsourced manufacturing facility or production site operated by a third-party contractor or supplier, typically located outside of the company's own premises or geographical area, often used to leverage cost advantages, specialized capabilities, or capacity flexibility.
Extranet: A private computer network or web-based platform that allows authorized external parties, such as suppliers, customers, or partners, to access specific information, collaborate, or conduct business transactions with a company in a secure and controlled environment.
4PL (Fourth-Party Logistics): A logistics service provider that acts as a strategic partner and coordinator, overseeing and managing multiple logistics activities, suppliers, and service providers within a supply chain network, often integrating various 3PL services and technologies.
5-Point Annual Average: A statistical calculation used to determine the average value of a variable over a specified period, typically by summing five data points and dividing by five, often used in forecasting, trend analysis, or performance measurement.
5-S Program: A methodology or set of principles for workplace organization and visual management, emphasizing Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain, aiming to improve efficiency, productivity, safety, and overall work environment.
ECMC (Empty Container Management Company): A company or service provider specialized in managing the availability, positioning, tracking, and logistics of empty shipping containers, ensuring their efficient utilization and flow within a containerized transportation system.
Edge Protector: A protective device or material used to safeguard the corners, edges, or vulnerable parts of goods, packages, or pallets during handling, stacking, storage, or transportation, reducing the risk of damage, abrasion, or deformation.
Elevating: The act of lifting or raising objects, materials, or equipment to a higher level or elevation, often using mechanical devices, such as cranes, hoists, or elevators, to facilitate loading, unloading, or positioning operations.
Elkins Act: A U.S. federal law enacted in 1903 that aimed to regulate and control railroad rates, practices, and anti-competitive behaviors, promoting fair competition and protecting the interests of shippers and consumers.
Eminent Domain: The power or right of a government or authorized entity to expropriate or acquire private property for public use, typically with fair compensation to the property owner, often exercised in infrastructure development, urban planning, or public projects.
Empty Repo: The return or repositioning of empty shipping containers to their designated locations, depots, or loading points, often to maintain container availability, balance container flows, or meet operational requirements.
Endorsement: A signature, stamp, or statement made on a document, such as a bill of lading, check, or insurance policy, to indicate approval, transfer of ownership, assignment of rights, or acceptance of terms and conditions.
Entry: The process of officially declaring or reporting imported goods to customs authorities, including the submission of required documents, payment of duties or taxes, and compliance with import regulations for clearance purposes.
Equalization: The act or process of equalizing or adjusting imbalances, differences, or variations in prices, rates, quantities, or other factors within a market or economic system, often to achieve fairness, competitiveness, or efficiency.
Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR): A document or form used in containerized shipping to record the interchange or transfer of shipping containers between carriers, terminals, or facilities, documenting container condition, ownership, and responsibility.
Ethylene: A colorless gas with a sweet odor, widely used in various industries, particularly in the production of plastics, chemicals, and synthetic materials, as well as in ripening fruits and vegetables.
E.W.I.B. (Electro-Wire Information Bureau): An information system or database that provides industry-specific data, standards, specifications, and resources related to electrical wiring, components, products, or systems, supporting design, manufacturing, and installation processes.
Ex Dec (Export Declaration): An acronym or abbreviation used to refer to an export declaration document submitted to customs authorities to provide information about exported goods, including description, quantity, value, and destination, for regulatory compliance and clearance purposes.
Ex - "From": A prefix or term used to indicate the origin or source of a shipment or transportation, often denoting the location or country from which goods are being shipped or dispatched.
Exception: An abnormal or unexpected event, condition, or situation that deviates from normal or standard operations, processes, or expectations, often requiring special attention, investigation, or resolution.
EXIM Bank (Export-Import Bank): A government-owned or government-sponsored financial institution that provides financing, insurance, guarantees, and other services to support and facilitate international trade, particularly in the context of export and import activities.
Expiry Date: The date or deadline after which a product, document, contract, license, or other time-limited item is no longer valid, effective, or legally enforceable, often requiring renewal, extension, or replacement.
Export Rate: The price, tariff, fee, or cost associated with exporting goods or services from one country to another, including transportation charges, customs duties, export-related fees, and other expenses incurred in the international trade process.
EAR (Export Administration Regulations): A set of U.S. government regulations that control and restrict the export of certain goods, technologies, software, or information due to national security, foreign policy, or trade control concerns, administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS).
ECCN (Export Control Classification Number): A unique alphanumeric code assigned to goods, technologies, or software items that are subject to export control regulations, categorizing them based on their nature, technical specifications, and export restrictions, as defined by the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
EEI (Electronic Export Information): Electronic data or information transmitted to the U.S. government's Automated Export System (AES) to provide export-related data, including commodity descriptions, quantity, value, parties involved, and regulatory information, required for compliance with export regulations.
Embargoes: Government-imposed restrictions, bans, or prohibitions on trade, commerce, or financial transactions with specific countries, individuals, organizations, or entities, often for political, economic, security, or foreign policy reasons.
End-User: The ultimate consumer, customer, or entity that uses or consumes a product, service, or technology, often distinct from intermediaries, resellers, or distributors within the supply chain.
ETA, ETC, ETD, ETR, ETS (Estimated Time of Arrival, Estimated Time of Completion, Estimated Time of Departure, Estimated Time of Readiness, Estimated Time of Sailing): Abbreviations used to indicate estimated or projected timings or schedules for various stages or milestones within transportation, logistics, or project management contexts.
Explanatory Notes: Supplementary or explanatory information provided alongside official trade documents, such as customs declarations or shipping documents, to clarify specific details, codes, descriptions, or requirements, aiding understanding and interpretation.
Export Compliance Program (ECP): An established framework, policies, procedures, and controls implemented by an organization to ensure compliance with export regulations, laws, and trade requirements, including classification, documentation, screening, and training activities.
Export Controls/Import Controls: Government-imposed measures, regulations, or restrictions on the exportation or importation of goods, technologies, or services, often aimed at protecting national security, preventing proliferation of weapons, controlling sensitive technologies, or complying with international agreements.
Export Documentation Software: Software applications or systems designed to streamline and automate the creation, management, and processing of export-related documents, such as commercial invoices, packing lists, certificates of origin, and export declarations, improving accuracy, efficiency, and compliance in export operations.
FA (Functional Acknowledgement): A standard electronic document or message used in electronic data interchange (EDI) to confirm the receipt and acceptance of another electronic document, typically used to acknowledge the successful transmission of EDI transactions between trading partners.
Fabricator: A company or entity that specializes in the fabrication, assembly, or manufacturing of products or components, often involving the use of raw materials, machinery, and skilled labor to transform materials into finished goods.
Facilities: Physical structures, buildings, or locations used for specific purposes, such as manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, or service operations, providing space, infrastructure, and resources to support business activities.
Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA): A systematic method used to identify, analyze, and evaluate potential failure modes, their causes, and their potential effects on a system, product, or process, aiming to proactively prevent or mitigate failures and improve reliability.
Fair Return: A concept or principle that refers to a reasonable or justifiable return on investment or capital, typically associated with the profitability, performance, or financial viability of a business or investment.
Fair Value: The estimated or calculated value of an asset or liability based on objective criteria, market conditions, or recognized valuation methods, reflecting its worth, market price, or potential exchange value under fair and competitive conditions.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): The national aviation authority of the United States responsible for the regulation and oversight of civil aviation, including air traffic control, aircraft operations, safety standards, and licensing of pilots and aircraft.
Federal Maritime Commission (FMC): An independent regulatory agency of the United States government responsible for regulating the ocean transportation system, protecting the rights of shippers and consumers, and ensuring fair competition among ocean carriers and marine terminal operators.
FG (Field Finished Goods): Refers to finished goods or products that have undergone the final assembly, testing, or quality control processes and are ready for deployment, installation, or use in the field or customer locations.
Field Service Parts: Parts, components, or spare items that are specifically used for field service or maintenance activities, including repair, replacement, or servicing of equipment or systems at customer sites or remote locations.
Field Services: Services provided by a company or organization at customer sites, remote locations, or field environments, often involving installation, maintenance, repair, technical support, or other activities to ensure proper functioning or utilization of products or systems.
Field Warehouse: A warehouse or storage facility located in or near the field or customer sites, intended to store inventory, equipment, or supplies needed for field operations, service activities, or project execution.
Fill Rate: A measure of the percentage or ratio that represents the quantity of customer orders or demands fulfilled or satisfied by available inventory or stock, often used to assess the efficiency, reliability, or responsiveness of order fulfillment processes.
Fill Rates by Order: A metric or analysis that examines the fill rate performance for individual customer orders or requests, providing insights into the accuracy, completeness, or timeliness of order fulfillment and the ability to meet customer requirements.
Final Assembly: The stage or process in manufacturing where various components, parts, or subassemblies are combined, integrated, or assembled to create the final finished product or end item.
Final Assembly Schedule (FAS): A detailed schedule or plan that outlines the sequence, timing, and resources required for the final assembly process, coordinating the activities of different departments, workstations, or teams involved in the assembly operations.
Final Destination: The ultimate or intended location or place where goods, shipments, or cargo are intended to be delivered or reach their final destination point, often specified by the customer or consignee.
Financial Responsibility: The obligation, accountability, or liability of an individual, organization, or entity to fulfill or cover financial obligations, debts, liabilities, or damages arising from business operations, contractual agreements, or legal requirements.
Finished Goods Inventory (FGI): Inventory or stock consisting of finished goods or products that are ready for sale, distribution, or shipment to customers, retailers, or end-users.
FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards): Standards and guidelines established by the U.S. federal government for the processing, management, and security of sensitive and unclassified information, ensuring interoperability, compatibility, and security of computer systems and software used by federal agencies.
Firewall: A security measure, system, or software application that acts as a barrier or protective boundary between different networks or computer systems, controlling and filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic to prevent unauthorized access, threats, or attacks.
Firm Planned Order: An official or confirmed planned order or production order that is firm and not subject to changes or cancellations unless significant circumstances or changes occur, representing a commitment to initiate or proceed with the manufacturing or procurement of specific items.
First In First Out (FIFO): A method or principle of inventory management and valuation where the first items received or produced are assumed to be the first ones consumed, used, or sold, reflecting the assumption that the oldest inventory is used or sold first.
First Mover Advantage: The competitive advantage or benefit gained by a company or organization that is the first to enter a market, introduce a new product, or adopt a particular strategy, often including early market share, brand recognition, customer loyalty, or technological leadership.
Fixed Costs: Costs or expenses that remain constant or do not vary with changes in production volume or business activity, such as rent, salaries, insurance, or depreciation, often incurred regardless of the level of output or sales.
Fixed Order Quantity: An inventory management approach where a fixed or predetermined quantity of items is ordered or replenished each time a reorder point or inventory threshold is reached, ensuring a consistent quantity on hand while reducing order frequency and associated costs.
Fixed Overhead: Fixed expenses or costs associated with the operation, maintenance, or management of a business or production facility that do not vary based on production levels, including rent, utilities, administrative salaries, or property taxes.
Fixed Quantity Inventory Model: An inventory management model or system where a fixed or constant quantity of items is maintained in inventory, and replenishment orders are placed to bring the inventory level back to the predetermined quantity whenever it reaches a reorder point or minimum level.
Flatbed: A type of truck, trailer, or transportation equipment with an open, flat platform or bed without sides or a roof, designed for the transportation of large, heavy, or oversized cargo, machinery, equipment, or other goods that cannot be easily loaded into enclosed trailers.
Flatcar: A type of railroad freight car or wagon with a flat, level platform or deck, often without sides or a roof, used for the transportation of heavy, bulky, or oversized cargo, such as containers, machinery, vehicles, or construction materials.
Flexibility: The ability or capacity of a system, process, organization, or supply chain to adapt, adjust, or respond effectively to changes, variations, uncertainties, or new requirements, often involving agility, versatility, or responsiveness to meet dynamic market or customer demands.
Flexible-Path Equipment: Equipment, machinery, or automation systems designed to accommodate different product sizes, shapes, or configurations, allowing flexibility in production or handling processes without requiring significant changes or adjustments.
Flexible Specialization: A manufacturing or production approach that combines flexibility and specialization, enabling companies to produce a wide variety of customized or niche products with shorter lead times, reduced inventories, and increased responsiveness to customer demands.
Flight Number: A unique alphanumeric code or identifier assigned to a specific flight or aircraft journey, typically used for scheduling, tracking, and managing airline flights, allowing passengers, air traffic control, and ground staff to identify and refer to specific flights.
Float: The amount of time that an activity, task, or process can be delayed without causing a delay to the overall project schedule or critical path, often used in project management to manage dependencies, resource allocation, or scheduling constraints.
Floor-Ready Merchandise (FRM): Merchandise, goods, or products that are prepared, packaged, or arranged in a way that facilitates easy placement, display, or stocking on retail store shelves or sales floors, often including pricing labels, barcodes, packaging, or promotional materials.
Flow Rack: A type of storage or shelving system designed for efficient material handling and order picking, where products or items are stored in a sloped or gravity-fed configuration, allowing them to flow or slide forward as items are removed from the picking face.
Flow-Through Distribution: A distribution method or strategy where goods or products are received, processed, and immediately shipped or distributed without being stored in inventory, often used for perishable, time-sensitive, or high-demand items to minimize handling and inventory holding costs.
FOB (Free on Board): A trade term or shipping arrangement that defines the point at which ownership and responsibility for goods transfer from the seller to the buyer, indicating that the seller is responsible for the cost and risk of delivering the goods to a specified location or port of shipment.
Forecast: A prediction, estimate, or projection of future demand, sales, or market conditions based on historical data, statistical models, market research, or expert judgment, often used for planning, production scheduling, inventory management, and supply chain optimization.
Forecasting: The process of analyzing historical data, market trends, customer behavior, and other relevant factors to make informed predictions or estimates of future demand, sales, or market conditions, providing a basis for decision-making, planning, and resource allocation.
Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ): A designated geographic area within a country where imported goods are treated as if they are outside the country's customs territory, allowing for certain customs benefits, duty deferrals, and streamlined procedures for manufacturing, assembly, storage, or re-export.
For-Hire Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that provides transportation services to third parties in exchange for compensation or payment, often offering its services to the general public or other businesses on a contract or fee basis.
Forklift Truck: A powered industrial truck or vehicle equipped with forks or prongs at the front for lifting, moving, and stacking loads or palletized goods in warehouses, distribution centers, or other material handling environments.
Form Utility: The value or usefulness created by converting raw materials, components, or inputs into finished products or goods through manufacturing, assembly, or production processes, making the products more suitable, functional, or desirable to customers.
Forwarder’s Bill of Lading: A document issued by a freight forwarder to acknowledge receipt of goods from the shipper and serve as evidence of the contract of carriage, containing details of the shipment, including the description of goods, parties involved, terms of transportation, and other relevant information.
Four-Wall Inventory: The inventory or stock that is physically present and stored within the walls of a warehouse, distribution center, or storage facility, excluding goods in transit, on order, or located outside the specific facility.
Fourth Party Logistics (4PL): A type of logistics service provider that acts as an integrator or orchestrator of multiple logistics services and providers, overseeing and managing the end-to-end supply chain operations and coordinating the activities of third-party logistics (3PL) providers on behalf of the client.
Free Along Side (FAS): A trade term or shipping arrangement where the seller is responsible for delivering the goods alongside a vessel or at a designated point of shipment, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the cost, risk, and logistics of loading the goods onto the vessel.
Free Alongside Ship (FAS): A trade term or shipping arrangement similar to FAS, where the seller is responsible for delivering the goods alongside a vessel, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the cost, risk, and logistics of loading the goods onto the vessel.
Free of Particular Average: A marine insurance clause or term indicating that the policy does not cover partial losses or damages to the insured goods, except if caused by specific perils or hazards specified in the policy, such as fire, sinking, collision, or stranding.
Free on Board (FOB): A trade term or shipping arrangement indicating that the seller is responsible for delivering the goods to a specified port of shipment, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the cost, risk, and logistics of transporting the goods from the port of shipment to the final destination.
Free Time: The period of time allowed or granted by a carrier or terminal operator to the shipper or consignee for the loading or unloading of cargo at a port, terminal, or warehouse without incurring additional charges or demurrage fees.
Freight: Goods, cargo, or merchandise transported by various modes of transportation, such as ships, airplanes, trucks, or trains, typically in large quantities or volumes and often subject to shipping, handling, or transportation fees.
Freight Bill: A document or invoice provided by a carrier or freight service provider to the shipper or consignor, detailing the transportation charges, fees, and other relevant information associated with the shipment of goods.
Freight Carriers: Companies, organizations, or entities that provide transportation services for goods or cargo, including shipping lines, airlines, trucking companies, railroads, or freight forwarders.
Freight Charge: The cost or fee associated with the transportation or shipment of goods by a carrier or freight service provider, covering the handling, transportation, documentation, and other related services.
Freight Collect: A payment arrangement or term indicating that the transportation charges or freight costs will be paid by the consignee or recipient of the goods upon delivery or receipt of the shipment.
Freight Consolidation: The process of combining multiple smaller shipments or consignments into a larger shipment or consolidated load for transportation, often used to optimize freight costs, improve efficiency, and achieve economies of scale.
Freight Forwarder: A company or intermediary that arranges and coordinates the transportation, logistics, and documentation of shipments on behalf of shippers or consignors, often providing services such as freight booking, consolidation, customs clearance, and cargo tracking.
Freight Forwarders Institute: An organization or association representing freight forwarders and logistics service providers, promoting industry best practices, standards, education, and advocacy for the freight forwarding profession.
Freight Prepaid: A payment arrangement or term indicating that the transportation charges or freight costs have been or will be paid by the shipper or consignor prior to the shipment's departure or release.
Freight Quotation: A formal or estimated statement provided by a carrier, freight forwarder, or transportation service provider to a shipper or consignor, detailing the anticipated or agreed-upon charges, rates, terms, and conditions for transporting goods or cargo.
Fronthaul: The transportation of goods or cargo from the origin or point of production to the main distribution center, central hub, or retail store, often involving larger shipments or long-haul transport to supply the inventory needed for distribution or sale.
FTL (Full Truckload): A transportation mode or service where a dedicated truck or trailer is used to transport a full or complete load of goods or cargo for a single customer, without sharing the space or capacity with other shipments.
Fulfillment: The process of completing, fulfilling, or executing an order or customer request for goods, products, or services, including activities such as order processing, picking, packing, shipping, and delivery to ensure customer satisfaction and timely order fulfillment.
Full Container Load (FCL): A shipping arrangement or mode where a full container is dedicated to a single shipment or consignment, typically used for larger shipments or when the volume of goods fills the entire container.
Full-Service Leasing: A leasing arrangement or agreement where the lessor provides comprehensive services, maintenance, repairs, and support for the leased asset or equipment, often used for vehicles, machinery, or specialized equipment.
Full-time Connection: A transportation service or route that operates continuously or regularly at frequent intervals, without requiring waiting or layover times for connections or transfers.
Fully Allocated Cost: The total or complete cost of producing, manufacturing, or providing a product, service, or activity, including direct costs, indirect costs, overheads, fixed costs, variable costs, and other expenses allocated or apportioned to the specific item or operation.
Functional Silo: A management or organizational structure where departments, teams, or units within a company or organization operate independently and focus solely on their specific functions or areas of expertise, often resulting in limited collaboration, communication, or integration across different functions.
False Billing: The act of intentionally creating or submitting fraudulent or deceptive invoices, bills, or financial documents for goods or services that were not provided, delivered, or authorized, often used as a fraudulent practice to obtain unauthorized payments or funds.
Feeder Service: A transportation service or route that connects smaller ports, terminals, or distribution centers to larger hub ports or transportation networks, often used to consolidate or distribute cargo from regional areas to main shipping routes.
Feeder Vessel: A smaller ship or vessel that transports cargo or containers between smaller ports, terminals, or distribution centers and larger hub ports, allowing for the efficient transfer, consolidation, or distribution of goods within a broader transportation network.
Fifth Wheel: A coupling device or mechanism used in trucking and trailer operations to connect a semi-trailer or trailer to a tractor or truck, providing the pivot point and articulation for turning, steering, and weight distribution between the tractor and trailer.
FIO (Free In and Out): A trade term or shipping arrangement indicating that the costs, responsibilities, and risks associated with loading and unloading cargo onto or from a vessel are the responsibility of the shipper or consignor, and the carrier is not responsible for these activities.
Firkin: A small cask or barrel used for storing or transporting liquids, typically used for alcoholic beverages, with a capacity equivalent to a quarter of a barrel or approximately 9 imperial gallons (41 liters).
Flat Car: A type of railroad freight car or wagon with a flat or level deck and no sides or roof, designed for transporting heavy or oversized cargo, machinery, vehicles, or containers that cannot be accommodated in standard enclosed railcars.
Flat Rack/Flat Bed Container: A type of shipping container with a flat or open-top design, featuring collapsible or removable sides and end walls, often used for transporting heavy, oversized, or irregularly shaped cargo that cannot fit inside standard containers.
FMC (Federal Maritime Commission): The Federal Maritime Commission, an independent regulatory agency of the United States federal government responsible for regulating the international ocean transportation system, protecting the public from unfair practices, and ensuring a competitive and efficient maritime industry.
FOR (Free on Rail): A trade term or shipping arrangement indicating that the seller is responsible for delivering the goods to a specified point or location on the rail system, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the cost, risk, and logistics of transporting the goods from that point onward.
Force Majeure: A legal term or clause often included in contracts to excuse or release parties from fulfilling their obligations due to unforeseen or uncontrollable events or circumstances beyond their reasonable control, such as natural disasters, wars, strikes, or government actions.
Fore and Aft: A nautical term referring to the lengthwise direction or alignment of a ship or vessel, parallel to its length from bow (front) to stern (rear), often used in navigation, ship handling, or describing the position of objects or locations on a vessel.
Foreign Sales Corporation: A legal entity or structure established in certain countries to provide tax incentives or benefits for companies engaged in international sales, export, or trade activities, often aimed at reducing taxes on profits generated from foreign sales.
FPPI (Foreign Principal Party in Interest): In the context of export regulations, the Foreign Principal Party in Interest refers to the overseas entity or party that receives, purchases, or ultimately benefits from the export of goods, technology, or services from the United States, often subject to specific licensing, documentation, or reporting requirements.
Foul Bill of Lading: A document issued by a carrier or shipping company to acknowledge the receipt of damaged, defective, or substandard goods or cargo, often indicating that the goods were received in a damaged or unsatisfactory condition.
Four-Way Pallet: A type of pallet designed with openings or notches on all four sides, allowing forklifts, pallet jacks, or other handling equipment to lift, move, or transport the pallet from any direction, providing flexibility and ease of handling in warehouses or logistics operations.
Forwarder Compensation: The compensation, fees, or commissions received by a freight forwarder or logistics service provider for the services rendered in arranging, coordinating, or managing the transportation, logistics, or documentation of shipments on behalf of shippers or consignors.
Free Astray: A trade term or shipping arrangement indicating that the goods or cargo are available or accessible to be delivered or taken away by the consignee or recipient, often used to signify that the goods are not held, detained, or restricted by the shipping carrier or customs authorities.
Free Carrier (FCA): A trade term or shipping arrangement where the seller is responsible for delivering the goods to a specified carrier or transport mode at a named place or point, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the subsequent transportation, costs, risks, and logistics from that point onward.
Free Out (FO): A trade term or shipping arrangement indicating that the seller is responsible for the costs, risks, and logistics of unloading the goods from the vessel at the port of discharge, and the buyer assumes responsibility for the subsequent transportation and delivery to the final destination.
Free Port: A designated port or location where goods or cargo can be imported, exported, stored, transshipped, or processed without being subject to certain customs duties, taxes, or restrictions, often established to promote trade, logistics, and economic activities.
Free Sale Certificate: A document or certificate issued by a regulatory authority, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to certify that goods or products intended for export or international trade comply with the applicable regulations, quality standards, and safety requirements for sale and distribution in the open market.
Freighters: Ships, vessels, or aircraft specifically designed and used for the transportation of goods, cargo, or merchandise, often used in commercial shipping, logistics, or freight transportation operations.
Full Shipload Lot: A shipment or cargo that fills or utilizes the full cargo capacity or load-carrying capacity of a vessel, often resulting in lower per-unit transportation costs and optimized shipping efficiency for bulk commodities, large consignments, or specialized cargo.
Full and Down: A transportation term or condition indicating that the shipper or consignor is responsible for loading the goods onto the transport vehicle or equipment, and the consignee or recipient is responsible for unloading the goods upon arrival, often used for shipments where the transportation equipment or vehicle does not have unloading capabilities.
Freight Broker: An intermediary or agent that facilitates the arrangement and coordination of transportation services between shippers or consignors and carriers or transportation providers, often negotiating rates, managing logistics, and ensuring the smooth flow of goods in the supply chain.
FTA (Free Trade Agreement): An international agreement or treaty between two or more countries that establishes preferential trade terms, reduced or eliminated tariffs, and other trade-related benefits or privileges to promote economic cooperation, liberalize trade, and facilitate the exchange of goods and services between the participating countries.
Freight-All-Kinds (FAK): A classification or shipping category used in the freight industry to group various goods, commodities, or cargo together based on similar characteristics or handling requirements, often allowing for simplified rate structures, consolidation, or flexible transportation options.
Gain Sharing: A performance-based incentive system or program that allows employees to share in the financial benefits or savings resulting from improved productivity, efficiency, or cost reductions within an organization.
Gathering Lines: Pipelines or infrastructure used to collect and transport oil, gas, or other substances from multiple wells or sources to a central processing facility or storage location.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade): An international trade agreement established in 1947 to promote free trade, reduce tariffs, and eliminate trade barriers among participating countries, providing a framework for negotiations and dispute resolution in international trade.
GB/L (Government Bill of Lading): A document issued by a government agency or entity to acknowledge the receipt and shipment of goods or cargo on behalf of the government, often used for military or government-related logistics operations.
General Average: A principle or concept in maritime law where the costs and losses incurred during a maritime voyage are proportionally shared among the shipowner, cargo owners, and other parties involved in the voyage, typically applied in situations of voluntary sacrifice or extraordinary expenses to preserve the common safety of the ship and cargo.
General-Commodities Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that provides services for a wide range of goods or commodities, without specializing in a specific industry or product.
General-Merchandise Warehouse: A storage facility or warehouse designed to handle and store various types of goods or merchandise, including consumer goods, raw materials, finished products, or other commodities, often used in distribution and fulfillment operations.
General Order (GO): A customs term or status indicating that imported goods or cargo have been held or detained by customs authorities for various reasons, such as pending inspection, documentation, or compliance verification.
Global Positioning System (GPS): A satellite-based navigation system that provides location, positioning, and timing information to users worldwide, enabling precise tracking, mapping, and navigation in various industries, including transportation, logistics, and outdoor activities.
Going-Concern Value: The value or worth of a business or company as an operating entity, assuming it will continue its operations indefinitely and generate future income or profits, often considered in the context of business valuations, acquisitions, or bankruptcy proceedings.
Gondola: A type of railcar or freight car with an open-top design, featuring low sides and often used for transporting bulk goods, such as coal, ores, or agricultural products.
Goods: Tangible products, merchandise, or commodities that can be bought, sold, or traded, typically used in the context of commerce, trade, or logistics.
Grandfather Clause: A provision or exemption in a law, regulation, or agreement that allows certain individuals, entities, or practices to continue under old or previous rules or conditions, even after new rules or requirements have been implemented.
Granger Laws: A series of state-level regulations enacted in the late 19th century in the United States to regulate railroad rates and practices, aimed at curbing monopolistic practices and ensuring fair and reasonable transportation rates for agricultural products.
Great Lakes Carriers: Shipping companies or vessels that operate on the Great Lakes, providing transportation services for goods, cargo, or passengers within the interconnected waterways of the Great Lakes region in North America.
Grid Technique: A planning or optimization method that involves dividing a geographical area into a grid system, often used in logistics or transportation planning to allocate resources, optimize routes, or analyze spatial data.
Gross National Product (GNP): A measure of the total economic output or value of all goods and services produced by the residents or entities of a country, including domestic production and income generated from abroad.
Gross Weight: The total weight of a shipment or cargo, including the weight of the goods, packaging materials, and any additional materials or containers used for transportation.
GTDI: Abbreviation for Global Trade Item Number, a unique identification number used to identify and track trade items, products, or units in the global supply chain, often represented by a barcode or electronic data.
GTIN: Abbreviation for Global Trade Item Number, a unique identification number used to identify and track trade items, products, or units in the supply chain, often represented by a barcode or electronic data.
Guaranteed Loans: Financial loans or credit arrangements where a third party, such as a government agency or financial institution, provides a guarantee or assurance to the lender that the loan will be repaid, reducing the risk for the lender and enabling borrowers to obtain financing on more favorable terms.
GUI (Graphical User Interface): A visual interface or software environment that allows users to interact with electronic devices, systems, or software applications using graphical elements, icons, menus, and visual controls, making it easier to navigate, operate, and interact with the technology.
Gateway: A point of entry, exit, or connection between different transportation networks, regions, or systems, often serving as a hub or interchange for the movement of goods, people, or information.
GDSM (Global Distribution Systems and Messaging): A computerized system or platform used by travel agencies, airlines, hotels, and other travel industry stakeholders to manage reservations, bookings, inventory, pricing, and other travel-related transactions and information.
Generator Set (Gen Set): A combination of an engine and an electric generator, often used to provide electrical power or backup power in various settings, including remote locations, construction sites, events, or emergency situations.
Global Maritime Intelligence Integration (GMII): A system or framework that integrates maritime intelligence from various sources, including vessels, ports, satellite surveillance, and data analytics, to enhance situational awareness, security, and operational efficiency in maritime operations.
Go-Down: A storage facility or warehouse, commonly used in South Asia, particularly in India, to store goods or merchandise.
Gooseneck: A type of trailer or coupling design that features a curved or bent extension, allowing for improved maneuverability and weight distribution when towing or transporting trailers, often used in heavy-duty or commercial transportation.
GRI (General Rate Increase): An adjustment or increase in freight rates or charges imposed by shipping lines, airlines, or transportation providers, typically applied across the board to cover increased costs, market conditions, or operational expenses.
Gross Tonnage (GT): A measure of a ship's overall size or volume, calculated based on the total enclosed space within the ship's hull, including cargo holds, engine rooms, crew quarters, and other compartments, often used for registration, regulatory, or taxation purposes.
Groupage: A consolidation or grouping of multiple smaller shipments or individual goods into a single larger shipment or container, often done to optimize transportation efficiency, reduce costs, and streamline logistics operations.
GVW (Gross Vehicle Weight): The total weight of a vehicle, including its payload, passengers, fuel, and any additional equipment or cargo, often used for determining vehicle classifications, restrictions, and compliance with weight regulations.
Handling Costs: The expenses incurred in the process of moving, transporting, or managing goods or materials, including activities such as loading, unloading, sorting, packaging, and storage.
Hard Copy: A physical, printed or tangible version of a document, file, or information, as opposed to an electronic or digital format.
Harmonized Commodity Description & Coding System (Harmonized Code): An internationally standardized system for classifying and categorizing goods or commodities, using a harmonized code or tariff number to facilitate international trade, customs procedures, and statistical analysis.
Haulage: The transportation or movement of goods or cargo overland, typically referring to the carriage of goods by road or rail.
HAWB (House Air Waybill): A document issued by a freight forwarder or consolidator that serves as a contract of carriage and receipt for goods, covering a specific shipment or consignment, often used in air freight operations.
Hawthorne Effect: The phenomenon where individuals modify their behavior or performance in response to the awareness of being observed or studied, often leading to improved productivity or outcomes in research or workplace settings.
Hazardous Goods: Materials or substances that possess potential risks or dangers to health, safety, property, or the environment, requiring special handling, storage, labeling, and transportation precautions due to their flammability, toxicity, corrosiveness, or other hazardous properties.
Heijunka: A production leveling or smoothing technique used in lean manufacturing or Just-in-Time (JIT) systems to balance and distribute production or workload evenly over time, reducing fluctuations, inventory, and waste.
Hierarchy of Cost Assignability: A system or structure used to allocate or assign costs to different levels, departments, activities, or products within an organization, allowing for the tracking and analysis of costs at various levels of granularity.
Hi-Low: A pricing strategy or method that involves offering high-priced products or services alongside lower-priced alternatives, catering to different customer segments or preferences.
Highway Trust Fund: A dedicated federal fund in the United States that finances transportation infrastructure projects, primarily highways and mass transit systems, through fuel taxes, excise taxes, and other revenue sources.
Highway Use Taxes: Taxes imposed on the use or operation of vehicles on public highways, often levied based on factors such as vehicle weight, distance traveled, or fuel consumption, to fund road maintenance, construction, and transportation-related initiatives.
Home Page: The main or introductory webpage of a website, typically serving as the starting point for navigation, displaying essential information, links, or features.
Hopper Cars: Railcars or rolling stock with a bottom discharge mechanism, designed for the transportation of bulk commodities, such as grains, coal, or minerals, allowing for efficient unloading through gravity or pneumatic systems.
Horizontal Play/Horizontal Hub: A supply chain strategy or approach that involves consolidating distribution centers, warehouses, or hubs within a specific geographical region, allowing for streamlined operations, reduced costs, and improved service levels.
Hostler: A specialized vehicle or equipment used for moving or maneuvering trailers, containers, or aircraft on the ground, typically within confined spaces, such as a yard, terminal, or cargo handling area.
Household Goods Warehouse: A storage facility or warehouse specifically designed for the storage of personal belongings, furniture, household goods, or residential items, often used in the context of moving or relocation services.
House to House: A transportation service or arrangement where goods or cargo are picked up from the shipper's location or premises and delivered directly to the consignee's designated destination or address.
House to Pier: A transportation service or arrangement where goods or cargo are picked up from the shipper's location or premises and transported to a specific pier or port facility for further shipment or handling.
Hub: A central or focal point that serves as a transportation or logistics hub, connecting multiple routes, modes, or networks and facilitating the flow of goods, people, or information.
Hub Airport: An airport that serves as a major transfer or connection point for airline passengers and cargo, often offering a wide range of flights and routes, along with facilities and services for transit, transfers, and logistics operations.
Hundredweight (CWT): A unit of weight equal to 100 pounds (45.36 kilograms), commonly used in the United States for pricing, billing, or calculating shipping charges.
Hague Rules, The: An international convention or set of rules that govern the liability and responsibilities of carriers in international maritime transportation, establishing standards for the carriage of goods by sea and addressing issues such as cargo loss, damage, or delays.
Handymax Vessel: A medium-sized cargo ship or vessel with a capacity typically ranging from 35,000 to 60,000 deadweight tons (DWT), designed to carry bulk commodities, such as coal, iron ore, or grains, but smaller in size compared to Panamax or Capesize vessels.
Harbor: A sheltered body of water, such as a natural bay or an artificially constructed area, providing a safe anchorage, docking, or mooring place for ships, boats, or vessels, often equipped with facilities, services, and infrastructure for maritime activities.
Harbor Master: An official or authority responsible for overseeing the operations, safety, and regulations within a harbor or port area, ensuring compliance with maritime laws, navigation rules, and port policies.
Hatch: An opening or access point on a ship's deck or cargo hold, allowing for the loading, unloading, or ventilation of cargo, often covered by a hatch cover or hatch lid.
Heavy-Lift Charge: An additional fee or surcharge imposed by carriers or shipping lines for handling or transporting exceptionally heavy or oversized cargo that requires special equipment, rigging, or procedures.
High-Density Compression: A storage or packaging technique that involves compacting or compressing goods or materials to increase storage density or reduce wasted space, often used in warehouse operations or transportation.
Hitchment: The act or process of connecting or coupling railway cars together to form a train, typically using a coupling device or mechanism.
Hopper Barge: A flat-bottomed, open cargo barge with a large capacity, often used for transporting bulk commodities, such as grains, coal, or aggregates, and equipped with a bottom discharge mechanism for efficient unloading.
Humping: A process or operation in rail yards or terminals where railcars are pushed or pulled into a classification yard or sorting area, using gravity or switch engines to separate and group cars according to their destinations or next routes.
HMF (Harbor Maintenance Fee): A fee or surcharge levied on shipments or cargo passing through U.S. ports or harbors to fund maintenance, dredging, and improvement projects for the harbor or port infrastructure.
House Bill of Lading: A document issued by a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC) or freight forwarder that serves as a contract of carriage and receipt for goods, covering a specific shipment or consignment, often used in ocean freight operations.
ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission): A former regulatory agency in the United States responsible for overseeing and regulating interstate transportation, including railroads, trucking, and other carriers.
Igloos: Dome-shaped structures traditionally built with blocks of ice or compacted snow, used as temporary shelters in cold regions.
IMB (International Maritime Bureau): An organization that works to combat maritime crime and promote security in the shipping industry, providing information, assistance, and support in matters such as piracy, armed robbery, and maritime fraud.
IMO (International Maritime Organization): A specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for developing and maintaining international regulations and standards for safe, secure, and environmentally sound shipping.
Import: The process of bringing goods or products into a country or region from another country, often involving customs procedures, documentation, and compliance with import regulations.
Importation Point: The designated location or port where imported goods enter a country or customs territory.
In Bond: Refers to goods or shipments that are held in a bonded or secure area under customs control, typically without the payment of duties or taxes, until certain conditions or requirements are met.
Inbound logistics: The management and coordination of activities related to the movement and transportation of materials, components, or goods into a company or facility, often involving procurement, warehousing, and transportation planning.
Incentive Rate: A reduced or discounted rate offered to encourage or incentivize certain behaviors or actions, such as increased purchasing, volume commitments, or specific performance targets.
Incoterms: A set of standardized international trade terms issued by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), defining the rights and obligations of buyers and sellers in international contracts, including the allocation of costs, risks, and responsibilities.
Independent Action: The ability of a carrier or transportation provider to make decisions and operate independently without coordination or control from other carriers or entities.
Independent Trading Exchange (ITE): An electronic platform or marketplace that facilitates the exchange or trading of goods or services between independent buyers and sellers, often using technology and standardized processes.
Indirect Cost: Costs that are not directly attributable to a specific product, project, or activity, but contribute to the overall operation or functioning of a business, such as administrative expenses, overhead, or shared resources.
Indirect/Distributor Channel: A distribution channel or network in which products or goods are sold through intermediaries, such as distributors, wholesalers, or retailers, rather than directly from the manufacturer or producer to the end consumer.
Indirect Retail Locations: Retail locations or outlets that are not owned or operated directly by a manufacturer or brand, but by independent retailers or franchisees.
Inland Bill of Lading: A document issued by a carrier or inland transport operator that serves as a contract of carriage and receipt for goods transported over land, typically used for domestic or inland shipments.
Inland Carrier: A transportation company or operator that provides services for the movement of goods within a country or region, often specializing in overland transport by road, rail, or inland waterways.
Insourcing: The practice of bringing activities, processes, or functions back in-house or within the organization's own operations, rather than outsourcing or contracting them to external parties.
Inspection Certificate: A document or certification issued by an authorized party or inspection agency that verifies the quality, condition, or compliance of goods, often required in international trade to ensure conformity with contractual specifications or regulations.
Insurance: A contractual arrangement in which an insurer provides financial protection or compensation against specified risks or losses in exchange for the payment of premiums.
Insurance Certificate: A document issued by an insurance provider or underwriter that serves as evidence of insurance coverage and details the terms, conditions, and extent of the insured risks or liabilities.
Integrated Carrier: A transportation company or logistics provider that offers multiple modes of transport, such as air, sea, rail, and road, as part of a seamless and integrated service offering.
Integrated Logistics: The coordination and integration of various logistics functions, including transportation, warehousing, inventory management, and information systems, to optimize the flow of goods and information across the supply chain.
Interchange: The process of transferring or exchanging goods, containers, or equipment between different transportation modes, such as from a truck to a train or from a ship to a truck.
Intercoastal carriers: Transportation companies or vessels that operate along the coastlines or between different coastal regions of a country or continent.
Intercorporate hauling: The transportation or movement of goods or cargo between different subsidiaries, divisions, or entities within the same corporate organization.
Interleaving: A technique or process of arranging or interleaving layers of different materials or products to protect or separate them during storage, transportation, or handling.
Interline: The cooperation or agreement between two or more carriers to jointly operate a transportation service, typically involving the use of each carrier's network, equipment, or resources.
Intermediate Destination: A designated location or stop along a transportation route that is neither the origin nor the final destination, often used for loading, unloading, transshipment, or other handling activities.
Intermediately Positioned Warehouse: A warehouse or storage facility strategically located between suppliers and customers, allowing for efficient consolidation, cross-docking, or distribution of goods.
Intermittent-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment: Equipment or machinery used in manufacturing or production processes that operates intermittently, following a fixed path or sequence to perform specific tasks or operations.
Intermodal Container Transfer Facility: A specialized facility or terminal where intermodal containers are transferred between different modes of transportation, such as from trucks to trains or from trains to ships.
Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC): A company or entity that offers intermodal transportation services by contracting with and coordinating the activities of multiple carriers or modes of transport.
Intermodal Transportation: The use of multiple modes of transportation, such as rail, road, sea, or air, in a coordinated and integrated manner to move goods or cargo from the origin to the destination.
Internal Customer: An individual or department within an organization that relies on the products, services, or information provided by another individual or department within the same organization.
Internal Labor and Overhead: The costs associated with direct labor and indirect expenses incurred within a company or organization to support its operations, production, or service delivery.
Internal Water Carriers: Transportation companies or vessels that operate on inland waterways, such as rivers, canals, or lakes, providing freight or passenger services within a country or region.
International Air Transport Association (IATA): An international trade association representing airlines worldwide, establishing standards, policies, and regulations for the aviation industry, including ticketing, cargo handling, safety, and security.
International Civil Aeronautics Organization (ICAO): A specialized agency of the United Nations that sets international standards and regulations for aviation safety, security, efficiency, and environmental protection.
International Import Certificate: A document or certification issued by the importing country's authorities or regulatory bodies, indicating permission, compliance, or authorization to import specific goods or commodities.
International Maritime Bureau (IMB): An organization that works to combat maritime crime and promote security in the shipping industry, providing information, assistance, and support in matters such as piracy, armed robbery, and maritime fraud.
International Maritime Organization (IMO): A specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for developing and maintaining international regulations and standards for safe, secure, and environmentally sound shipping.
International Standards Organization (ISO): An independent, non-governmental international organization that develops and publishes voluntary standards for various industries and sectors to ensure quality, safety, and efficiency in products, services, and systems.
Internet: A global network of interconnected computers and devices that allows for the transmission, exchange, and retrieval of information and communication through standardized protocols and technologies.
Interstate Commerce: The commercial transactions, transportation, or trade activities that occur between different states within a country or between different countries.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): A former regulatory agency in the United States responsible for overseeing and regulating interstate transportation, including railroads, trucking, and other carriers.
Interstate System: A network of highways or roadways that connect different states or regions within a country, often regulated and maintained by national or state authorities.
In-Transit Inventory: The inventory or goods that are in the process of being transported or shipped from the origin to the destination, typically in transit between different locations or facilities.
Intrastate Commerce: The commercial transactions, transportation, or trade activities that occur within the boundaries of a single state or region.
Inventory: The stock or supply of goods, materials, or products held by a company, often for sale, production, or distribution purposes.
Inventory Accuracy: The degree to which the actual inventory quantity or stock levels match the recorded or expected quantities in the inventory management system.
Inventory Carrying Cost: The expenses or costs associated with holding and storing inventory, including storage space, insurance, handling, obsolescence, depreciation, and financing.
Inventory Cost: The total cost or value of inventory, including the purchase or production costs, carrying costs, and any additional expenses incurred in acquiring, storing, and managing the inventory.
Inventory, Days of: A metric or measure that indicates the number of days it takes for a company to sell or deplete its inventory, calculated by dividing the average inventory value by the cost of goods sold per day.
Inventory In Transit: The inventory or goods that are in the process of being transported or shipped from the origin to the destination, typically under the responsibility of a carrier or transportation provider.
Inventory Management: The planning, control, and optimization of inventory levels, stock replenishment, and storage to ensure adequate supply, minimize costs, and meet customer demand.
Inventory Planning Systems: Computer-based systems or software applications that support the management and optimization of inventory, including demand forecasting, replenishment planning, and inventory control.
Inventory Turns: A metric or measure that indicates how many times a company's inventory is sold or replenished within a specific period, calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory value.
Inventory Turnover: A metric or ratio that indicates how quickly a company's inventory is sold and replenished within a specific period, calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory value.
Inventory Velocity: The speed or rate at which inventory moves through the supply chain, from the point of acquisition or production to the point of consumption or sale, often measured in terms of time or turnover.
Invoice: A document or statement issued by a seller to a buyer, indicating the products, quantities, prices, terms, and other relevant details of a sale transaction, serving as a request for payment.
Irregular Route Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that operates on non-standard or non-regular routes, often providing specialized or customized services for specific shipments or destinations.
ITE (Independent Trading Exchange): An electronic platform or marketplace that facilitates the exchange or trading of goods or services between independent buyers and sellers, often using technology and standardized processes.
Item: A specific product, unit, part, or component that is identified and managed as a distinct entity within an inventory or supply chain.
I/A (Import Administration): A division or branch within a government agency or department responsible for the administration, regulation, and oversight of imports, including trade policies, tariffs, quotas, and customs procedures.
IE (Import/Export): Referring to the activities, processes, or functions related to the importation and exportation of goods, products, or services between countries.
I.M.C.O. (International Maritime Consultative Organization): The former name of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for developing and maintaining international regulations and standards for safe, secure, and environmentally sound shipping.
I.M.D.G. Code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code): A global standard or code developed by the IMO for the safe transportation of dangerous goods by sea, providing guidelines, classifications, packaging requirements, and documentation for the handling and shipment of hazardous materials.
Immediate Exportation: A customs procedure or process that allows imported goods to be re-exported immediately without being subjected to the usual customs duties, taxes, or regulations.
Import License: A document or authorization issued by the importing country's authorities or regulatory bodies, granting permission or approval to import specific goods or commodities, often subject to certain conditions or restrictions.
In Gate: The entry point or gate at a terminal, port, or facility where inbound vehicles, containers, or shipments are checked-in, registered, or processed upon arrival.
In Transit: Referring to goods, cargo, or shipments that are in the process of being transported or shipped from the origin to the destination, typically between different locations or facilities.
In-Transit Entry (I.T.): A customs procedure or entry that allows goods to be transported through a country or customs territory without being subjected to import duties, taxes, or other customs requirements, as long as the goods remain in transit and are not intended for domestic consumption or sale.
Indemnity Bond: A financial guarantee or security provided by a party, often in the form of a bond or insurance policy, to compensate or protect another party against potential losses, damages, or liabilities.
Independent Tariff: A tariff or rate schedule set by an individual carrier or transportation provider independently, without coordination or agreement with other carriers or industry associations.
Inducement: An incentive, benefit, or advantage offered to entice or persuade someone to take a specific action, such as purchasing a product, signing a contract, or choosing a particular transportation service.
Inherent Vice: A characteristic or quality of a product or material that makes it prone to deterioration, damage, or loss under normal or expected conditions, often excluding coverage or liability under certain insurance policies.
Installment Shipments: The delivery or shipment of goods in multiple parts, batches, or installments over a period of time, typically according to a predetermined schedule or agreement.
Insulated Container: A specialized container or packaging designed to provide thermal insulation and temperature control for goods or products that require protection from extreme temperatures or temperature variations.
Insulated Container Tank: A specialized tank container or tanktainer designed to transport liquid or bulk cargo, such as chemicals or food products, in a temperature-controlled and insulated environment.
Insurance with Average-Clause: An insurance policy that covers losses or damages to insured goods or cargo based on a percentage of the declared value, often used in marine insurance to account for partial losses or damages.
Insurance, All-risk: An insurance policy that provides coverage for losses or damages to insured goods or property against a wide range of perils, hazards, or risks, except for those specifically excluded in the policy.
Insurance, General Average: An insurance policy or provision that covers the costs or expenses incurred in a general average event, where sacrifices or expenditures are made to safeguard a vessel, its cargo, or its crew during a voyage.
Insurance, Particular Average: An insurance policy or provision that covers losses or damages to insured goods or property resulting from specific or particular perils, hazards, accidents, or events, such as fire, theft, or collision.
Interchange Point: A designated location or terminal where different transportation modes or carriers meet and exchange goods, containers, or equipment for onward shipment or delivery.
Intercoastal: Referring to transportation or shipping activities between different coastlines or coastal regions of a country or continent.
Interline Freight: The shipment or transportation of goods that involves multiple carriers or transportation companies, with each carrier responsible for a segment or portion of the overall journey.
Intermediate Point: A designated location, stop, or hub along a transportation route that is neither the origin nor the final destination, often used for transshipment, consolidation, or distribution purposes.
Intermodal: Referring to the use of multiple modes of transportation, such as rail, road, sea, or air, in a coordinated and integrated manner to move goods or cargo from the origin to the destination.
International Ship and Port Security Code (ISPS): A set of international security measures and regulations established by the IMO to enhance the security and safety of ships, ports, and maritime facilities against the threats of terrorism, piracy, and other unlawful acts.
Inward Foreign Manifest (IFM): A document or record that provides details of the cargo, goods, or shipments aboard a vessel arriving from a foreign port, submitted to the customs authorities for import clearance and assessment of duties, taxes, or restrictions.
IPI (Inland Point Intermodal): A transportation service or option that involves the movement of containers or cargo from an inland location, often away from a port or coast, to an intermodal facility for further transportation by rail or other modes.
Irrevocable Letter of Credit: A financial instrument or guarantee issued by a bank on behalf of a buyer, assuring the seller that payment will be made for goods or services, provided that the seller meets the specified terms and conditions of the letter of credit.
I.S.O. (In Stock Out): Referring to the availability or status of a product or item in a company's inventory, indicating whether it is currently in stock and available for order or shipment.
Issuing Bank: A bank or financial institution that issues a letter of credit or other financial instruments, guaranteeing payment or providing financial security for a transaction between parties.
Issuing Carrier: The transportation company or carrier that issues a transport document, such as a bill of lading or airway bill, confirming the acceptance and responsibility for the carriage of goods or cargo.
IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods): Referring to the regulations, guidelines, and classifications established by the IMO for the safe transportation of dangerous goods by sea, including the IMDG Code and associated requirements.
Import Declaration: A document or declaration submitted to the customs authorities by an importer or their agent, providing details of the imported goods, their value, origin, and other relevant information for customs clearance and assessment of duties, taxes, or restrictions.
ISPM 15 (International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures): A global standard or regulation developed by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and adopted by many countries to prevent the spread of pests and diseases through wooden packaging materials used in international trade.
ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations): Regulations established by the United States Department of State to control and restrict the export and transfer of defense articles, services, and technical data that are designated as defense articles or controlled under the United States Munitions List (USML).
Jidoka: A principle in lean manufacturing that refers to autonomously detecting abnormalities or defects in the production process and immediately stopping the operation to prevent the production of defective products.
Joint Cost: The cost incurred in a production process or project that is shared or allocated among multiple products or outputs that are produced simultaneously.
Joint Rate: A transportation rate or charge that applies to the combined shipment of multiple goods or products by the same carrier or transportation service provider.
Joint Supplier Agreement (JSA): An agreement or contract between two or more parties, typically manufacturers or suppliers, to collaborate and jointly supply goods or components to a customer or market.
Just In Time (JIT): A production and inventory management approach aimed at minimizing inventory levels and reducing waste by delivering materials or components to the production line exactly when they are needed.
Just in Time II (JIT II): An extended application of the Just-In-Time (JIT) concept that involves suppliers having direct access to the production line and delivering materials or components based on real-time demand signals.
Just-in-Time Logistics (or Quick Response): An approach to logistics and supply chain management that emphasizes the timely and efficient flow of materials, products, and information to meet customer demands and minimize inventory holding costs.
Jacket: A protective covering or packaging material used to safeguard goods or products during transportation, storage, or handling.
Jacob's Ladder: A ladder-like device used for access to or between decks of a ship, often consisting of a set of parallel ropes or chains with wooden or metal rungs.
Jettison: The act of intentionally throwing or discarding goods or cargo from a ship or aircraft, usually to lighten the load and improve safety in emergency situations or to meet weight restrictions.
Kanban: A visual scheduling system used in lean manufacturing and logistics to manage inventory and production flow. It utilizes cards or signals to indicate when and how much material should be produced or replenished.
Keiretsu: A Japanese business term referring to a network or group of companies that have interlocking relationships, often through cross-shareholdings, to enhance collaboration, coordination, and mutual support.
Kitting: The process of assembling or grouping together individual components or parts into a kit or package that can be easily picked and used for production, assembly, or distribution.
KPI: Acronym for Key Performance Indicator. It is a measurable metric or parameter used to assess the performance, progress, or success of an organization, department, or process.
KT: Acronym for Knowledge Transfer. It refers to the process of sharing or transferring knowledge, skills, expertise, or information from one individual or group to another within an organization.
King Pin: The pivot point or coupling device that connects the trailer to the tractor in a semi-trailer truck or articulated vehicle.
Knocked Down (KD): A term used to describe goods or products that have been disassembled or partially dismantled for ease of transportation, storage, or handling. Also known as "disassembled" or "unassembled."
Knot: A unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, commonly used in maritime and aviation contexts.
Known Loss: A term used in insurance or shipping to refer to a loss or damage that is already known or evident at the time of shipment or prior to insurance coverage.
Lading: A term referring to the act of loading or the items loaded onto a vehicle, typically used in the context of shipping and transportation.
Laid-Down cost: The total cost of a product or item, including its purchase price and all associated costs, such as transportation, handling, customs duties, and taxes, to deliver it to a specified location.
Land bridge: A transportation route or service that involves moving goods or cargo by rail or truck across a landmass, often as part of an intermodal shipping process, to reach a destination that is not directly accessible by sea or air.
Land Grants: Tracts of land given by the government to individuals or companies, often as an incentive for the development of transportation infrastructure, such as railroads.
Landed Cost: The total cost of a product or shipment, including the purchase price, transportation, customs duties, taxes, insurance, and other expenses incurred to bring the goods to their final destination.
Lash Barges: Barges designed with lashings or securing mechanisms to facilitate the transport of cargo on waterways, often used in conjunction with larger vessels or in areas with limited port infrastructure.
LASH Vessel: Stands for "Lighter Aboard SHip." It refers to a type of specialized vessel equipped with onboard cranes or derricks to load and unload lighter barges or containers.
Last In First Out (LIFO): A method of inventory management where the most recently acquired or produced items are assumed to be the first ones sold or used. In this approach, the inventory that remains is considered to be from earlier acquisitions or production.
Last Updated: A term indicating the most recent or latest update of information or data.
Lead Logistics Provider (LLP): A logistics service provider or company that takes a leadership role in coordinating and managing all aspects of a supply chain or logistics network on behalf of its clients or customers.
Lead Time: The amount of time required for an order or a process to be completed, from initiation to fulfillment or delivery.
Leg: A segment or part of a transportation route, often used in the context of multi-leg shipments involving multiple modes of transportation or transfer points.
Less-Than-Container Load (LCL): A shipping term referring to a shipment that does not completely fill a standard shipping container. Multiple LCL shipments from different shippers may be consolidated into a single container.
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL): A shipping term referring to a shipment that does not fill an entire truck. LTL shipments are typically combined with other shipments to maximize truck capacity and reduce costs.
Lessee: A party that enters into a lease agreement and obtains the right to use or occupy property or assets owned by another party.
Lessor: A party that owns property or assets and grants the right to use or occupy them to another party through a lease agreement.
Letter of Credit (LOC): A financial document issued by a bank that guarantees payment to a seller upon the fulfillment of specified conditions and requirements, typically used in international trade transactions.
Leverage: The use of borrowed funds or other financial instruments to increase the potential return on investment or the capacity to undertake business operations or projects.
Life Cycle Cost: The total cost of owning, operating, and maintaining a product or asset over its entire lifespan, including acquisition, operation, maintenance, and disposal costs.
Lift on, Lift off (LO/LO): A method of cargo handling where cranes or other lifting equipment are used to load and unload cargo onto/from a vessel or other transport vehicle.
Lighter: A type of flat-bottomed boat or barge used to transport cargo between a vessel and a shore, especially in areas where deep-water ports are unavailable.
Lighterage: The act or process of transferring cargo between a vessel and a shore using lighters or barges.
Line Functions: The core or primary activities within an organization that directly contribute to its primary objectives, such as production, marketing, sales, and customer service.
Line-Haul Shipment: A transportation shipment that moves goods or cargo over long distances between major cities or hubs, often involving intermodal transport or long-haul trucking.
Line Item: An individual entry or itemized detail in a document or record, such as an invoice, bill of lading, or purchase order.
Liner Service: Regularly scheduled shipping service that operates on specific routes and follows a fixed schedule, typically used for containerized or breakbulk cargo.
Linked Distributed Systems: Systems or components that are interconnected or linked together to exchange information, data, or resources, often through computer networks or communication protocols.
Live: A term used to describe cargo or goods that require special handling or attention due to their perishable nature, such as live animals or fresh produce.
Load Factor: A measure of the utilization or occupancy level of a transportation vehicle or mode, typically expressed as a percentage of available capacity filled with cargo or passengers.
Load Tender (Pick-Up Request): A formal request or notification sent by a shipper or consignor to a carrier or transportation provider, indicating the intention to tender or hand over a shipment for pickup and transportation.
Load Tendering: The process of offering or assigning a shipment to a carrier or transportation provider for pickup and delivery.
Loading Allowance: A deduction or reduction in freight charges granted to a shipper or consignor for the loading of cargo onto a transportation vehicle, often based on volume, weight, or other specified criteria.
Loading Port: The port or location where cargo or goods are loaded onto a vessel or other transport vehicle for shipment or transportation.
Local Rate: The transportation or shipping rate applicable to a specific local area or region, often determined by factors such as distance, demand, and market conditions.
Local Service Carriers: Transportation companies or providers that primarily operate within a specific local area or region, offering services for the pickup, delivery, and transportation of goods within that area.
Localized Raw Material: Raw materials sourced or obtained from a specific local region or area, often due to their availability or suitability for local industries or production processes.
Locational Determinant: Factors or considerations that influence the selection or choice of a specific location for a facility, such as proximity to customers, suppliers, transportation networks, labor availability, and cost.
Logbook: A record or document used to track and document important information or activities related to a specific process, operation, or vehicle, often used in transportation and shipping for recording details such as mileage, fuel consumption, maintenance, and compliance.
Logistics: The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient and effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption to meet customer requirements.
Logistics Channel: The network or pathway through which goods, services, and information flow within a logistics system, involving various entities, such as suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and customers.
Logistics Costs: The expenses incurred in the management and operation of logistics activities, including transportation costs, inventory carrying costs, warehousing costs, packaging costs, and other related expenses.
Logistics Data Interchange (LDI): The electronic exchange of logistics-related information, such as orders, invoices, shipment details, and inventory data, between different parties or systems within a supply chain or logistics network.
Logistics Management: The process of planning, coordinating, and controlling the movement and storage of goods, services, and information within a supply chain or logistics network to meet customer requirements. The definition provided is from the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP).
LO/LO: Abbreviation for Lift-On/Lift-Off, referring to a method of cargo handling where cranes or other lifting equipment are used to load and unload cargo onto or from a vessel or other transport vehicle.
Long Ton: A unit of weight equal to 2,240 pounds or 1,016.05 kilograms, commonly used in international shipping and trade.
Lot Control: The process of tracking and managing inventory or products based on specific lot or batch numbers, ensuring traceability and control over product quality, expiration dates, and other attributes.
Lot Size: The quantity or number of units in a batch or production run, often determined by factors such as demand, economies of scale, production capabilities, and inventory management considerations.
Lumping: The manual handling or loading/unloading of goods or cargo, often performed by lumpers or individuals hired to assist in the physical tasks involved in material handling.
Letter of Indemnity: A document or agreement in which one party provides assurance or compensation to another party against potential losses, damages, or liabilities that may arise in a specific situation or transaction.
Licenses: Official authorizations or permits issued by relevant authorities or regulatory bodies that grant permission to engage in specific activities or operations, such as import/export licenses, transportation licenses, or hazardous materials handling licenses.
Lien: A legal claim or right that a person or entity has over the property of another person as security for the payment of a debt or the fulfillment of an obligation.
Lightening: The process of removing or reducing the cargo load from a vessel to increase its draft or improve its stability, often done when the vessel enters shallow waters or ports with depth restrictions.
Liner: A type of vessel that operates on regular schedules and specific routes, providing transportation services for general cargo or containers between ports.
Line-Haul: The transportation segment or leg of a journey that covers the long-distance or main transportation route, typically involving bulk transportation or intercity movement of goods.
List: A document or record that provides an itemized inventory, catalog, or register of goods, materials, or other items.
Liter: A unit of volume equal to one cubic decimeter or 0.001 cubic meters, commonly used for measuring liquids.
Liquidated Damages: Pre-determined financial compensation or penalties specified in a contract to be paid by one party to another in the event of a breach or failure to meet specified conditions or obligations.
Lloyds' Registry: An organization that provides classification and certification services for ships and marine vessels, ensuring compliance with safety, construction, and operational standards.
LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): Natural gas that has been converted into liquid form for ease of storage, transport, and use.
LNGC (LNG Carrier): A specialized vessel designed for the transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in bulk quantities.
Load Line: A visible mark or line on the hull of a ship that indicates the maximum allowable draft or immersion in different loading conditions, ensuring compliance with safety and stability standards.
Local Cargo: Goods or cargo transported within a specific local area or region, typically involving shorter distances and local delivery.
Longshoreman: A person employed to load, unload, or handle cargo on or near the docks or port areas.
Loose: Referring to goods or cargo that is not packaged, contained, or secured, but rather transported in an unpacked or unconsolidated form.
Low-Boy: A type of trailer or transport vehicle with a low deck height, designed for hauling heavy or oversized loads that require a lower center of gravity.
Laden: Referring to a transportation vehicle or cargo hold that is loaded or filled with goods or cargo.
Landbridge: A transportation route or mode that involves moving goods or cargo from one port to another by crossing a land or continental area, often used for connecting two different bodies of water.
Lanemeter: A unit of measurement used to determine the length or space occupied by a vehicle or cargo on a transport vessel or trailer, often used for calculating freight rates or capacity utilization.
Landing Certificate: A document issued by customs or port authorities that confirms the lawful landing or arrival of goods or cargo at a specific port or destination.
Landing Gear: The retractable structure or set of wheels and supports on an aircraft or trailer that allows it to stand or rest on the ground when not in motion.
LASH: Abbreviation for Lighter Aboard Ship, referring to a transportation system where cargo is loaded onto barges (lighters) and then lifted onto or off a specially designed vessel for ocean transport.
LAYCAN: Abbreviation for Laydays and Cancelling, indicating the range of dates within which a charterer must present a vessel for loading or unloading without incurring penalties or contractual consequences.
Less Than Truckload (LTL): A shipping or transportation method where the cargo or shipment does not require a full truckload, and multiple shipments from different customers are consolidated and transported in a single truck.
License Exception: A provision or rule in trade regulations that allows certain goods or transactions to be exempted from specific licensing requirements or restrictions under certain circumstances or conditions.
Liquidation: The process of settling or winding up a business, project, or transaction, often involving the sale or disposal of assets to convert them into cash or to meet obligations and distribute remaining proceeds.
Machine Downtimes: The periods of time when a machine or equipment is not operational or unavailable for use due to maintenance, repairs, malfunctions, or other reasons.
Macro Environment: The external factors and conditions that can impact an organization's operations and performance on a larger scale, such as economic conditions, political stability, legal regulations, technological advancements, and social and cultural influences.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO): The materials, parts, and supplies used for maintenance, repair, and operation of equipment, machinery, and facilities within an organization.
Major Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that has a significant presence and market share within a particular industry or region.
Make-or-Buy Decision: A strategic decision-making process that involves evaluating whether to produce or manufacture a product or component in-house (make) or purchase it from external suppliers (buy).
Make to Order (Manufacture to Order): A manufacturing approach where products are produced or manufactured based on specific customer orders or demand, rather than being produced in advance and stocked as finished goods.
Make to Stock (Manufacture to Stock): A manufacturing approach where products are produced or manufactured based on forecasts or anticipated demand and stocked as finished goods before customer orders are received.
Management of All Logistics: The comprehensive management and coordination of all logistics activities, including transportation, warehousing, inventory management, order processing, and information systems, to ensure efficient and effective flow of goods and services.
Manufacture Cycle Time: The total time required to complete the manufacturing process for a product, from the start of production to the availability of finished goods for shipment.
Manufacturer's Representative: An individual or company that acts as an intermediary or sales agent on behalf of a manufacturer, promoting and selling their products to customers or clients.
Manufacturing Calendar: A calendar or schedule that outlines the production activities, milestones, and timelines for manufacturing operations, including planned downtime, maintenance, and production runs.
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES): Computer-based systems or software used to monitor, control, and manage manufacturing operations on the shop floor, including real-time data collection, process control, and performance tracking.
Manufacturing Lead Time: The total time required to complete the manufacturing process, including order processing, production, and any necessary waiting or setup times, before products are ready for delivery.
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II): An integrated system that combines materials requirements planning (MRP) with other business functions such as capacity planning, resource allocation, and shop floor control to effectively plan and manage manufacturing operations.
Mar Ad: Abbreviation for Maritime Administration, referring to a government agency or authority responsible for overseeing and regulating maritime activities, including maritime transportation, shipbuilding, and ports.
Marginal Cost: The cost incurred by producing one additional unit of a product or providing one additional service, taking into account the additional resources and expenses required.
Marine Cargo Insurance - Average: Insurance coverage that protects against partial loss or damage to goods during marine transportation, where the insurer covers a proportionate share of the loss based on the insured value.
Marine Cargo Insurance - FPA (Free of Particular Average): Insurance coverage that protects against total loss or damage to goods during marine transportation, where the insurer only covers losses caused by specified perils or events.
Marine Cargo Insurance - General Average: Insurance coverage that protects against loss or damage to goods during marine transportation, where the insurer covers a proportionate share of the loss incurred for the common benefit of all parties involved in a maritime venture.
Marine Cargo Insurance - Open Policy A: A type of marine insurance policy that provides continuous coverage for multiple shipments or consignments within a specified period, typically covering goods transported by sea.
Market-Positioned Warehouse: A warehouse strategically located near a specific market or customer base to facilitate efficient and timely distribution of goods to meet market demand.
Marks and Numbers: The unique symbols, codes, labels, or identification markings placed on packages, containers, or products to provide information about the origin, destination, contents, handling instructions, or other relevant details.
Marquis Partners: Business partners or entities with a distinguished or recognized status, reputation, or expertise in their respective industries or fields.
Mass Customization: A manufacturing or production approach that combines the benefits of mass production and customization, allowing products to be tailored or customized to individual customer requirements while maintaining efficient and cost-effective production processes.
Master Air Waybill (MAWB): A document issued by an air carrier or freight forwarder that serves as a contract of carriage and receipt for goods transported by air, outlining the details of the shipment, including origin, destination, flight details, and handling instructions.
Material Acquisition Costs: The costs associated with procuring or acquiring materials or components used in the production or manufacturing process, including purchase price, transportation costs, duties, taxes, and other related expenses.
Materials Handling: The activities, equipment, and systems involved in the movement, storage, control, and protection of materials, products, or goods within a facility or supply chain.
Material Index: A measure or calculation used to determine the value or significance of materials used in a manufacturing process, often based on factors such as cost, availability, environmental impact, or performance characteristics.
Materials Management: The function or process of planning, organizing, and controlling the flow and storage of materials from their acquisition to their consumption or use in the production or manufacturing process.
Materials Planning: The process of determining the optimal quantity, timing, and sourcing of materials or components needed to support production or manufacturing activities, considering factors such as demand forecasts, lead times, inventory levels, and production schedules.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP): A computer-based inventory management and production planning system that calculates the quantity and timing of materials required for production based on production schedules, demand forecasts, and inventory levels.
Matrix Organizational Structure: A management structure that combines functional and project-based reporting lines, where employees have dual reporting relationships and work across multiple projects or functional areas.
Maximum Order Quantity: The maximum quantity or volume of goods that a customer or buyer is allowed to order or purchase within a specific time frame or for a particular transaction.
m-Commerce: Abbreviation for mobile commerce, referring to the buying and selling of goods, services, or information using mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablets, through wireless networks or internet connections.
Median: A statistical measure that represents the middle value in a set of numbers or data points when they are arranged in ascending or descending order, separating the higher and lower values equally.
Merge In Transit: A logistics strategy or process where individual components or shipments from multiple suppliers are combined or consolidated at a central distribution point or en route to the final destination, improving efficiency and reducing inventory holding costs.
Merger: The combination or integration of two or more companies or business entities into a single entity, typically to achieve synergies, expand market presence, or gain competitive advantages.
MES: Abbreviation for Manufacturing Execution Systems, referring to computer-based systems or software used to monitor, control, and manage manufacturing operations on the shop floor, including real-time data collection, process control, and performance tracking.
Message: A communication or information transmitted or exchanged between parties within a supply chain or business process, often electronically, to convey instructions, notifications, status updates, or other relevant information.
Metrics: Quantitative measurements or indicators used to assess performance, track progress, or evaluate the effectiveness of processes, operations, or strategies within a logistics or supply chain context.
Micro-Land Bridge: A transportation mode or service that involves the movement of goods or cargo over a relatively short distance by road or rail between an inland point and a seaport or airport, facilitating the intermodal transfer of freight.
Mileage Allowance: The reimbursement or compensation provided to individuals or organizations for the use of their vehicles based on the number of miles traveled for business purposes, typically calculated at a predetermined rate per mile.
Mileage Rate: The cost or charge levied for transporting goods or cargo over a specified distance, often calculated based on the number of miles traveled.
Mini-Land Bridge: A transportation mode or service that combines multiple modes, such as road, rail, and sea, to move goods or cargo between an inland location and a seaport, typically involving a shorter distance than traditional land bridge services.
Minimum Weight: The minimum or threshold weight required for a shipment to qualify for certain transportation services, rates, or pricing structures.
Mixed Loads: Shipments or containers that contain a combination of different types of goods, products, or items, often belonging to different customers or consignees, consolidated or grouped together for transportation efficiency.
Mode: A specific method or form of transportation used for moving goods or cargo, such as road, rail, air, sea, or pipeline.
Modal Split: The distribution or allocation of goods or cargo across different transportation modes or modes of transport, often expressed as a percentage or ratio of the total volume or tonnage transported by each mode.
Motor Carrier: A transportation company or carrier that provides transportation services using motor vehicles, such as trucks or vans, for the movement of goods or cargo.
Movement of Goods: The physical transportation or transfer of goods, products, or cargo from one location or point of origin to another, involving various modes of transport, handling activities, and logistics processes.
MRP: Abbreviation for Material Requirements Planning, referring to a computer-based inventory management and production planning system that calculates the quantity and timing of materials required for production based on production schedules, demand forecasts, and inventory levels.
MRP-II: Abbreviation for Manufacturing Resource Planning II, referring to an integrated system that combines materials requirements planning (MRP) with other business functions such as capacity planning, resource allocation, and shop floor control to effectively plan and manage manufacturing operations.
MSDS: Abbreviation for Material Safety Data Sheet, referring to a document that provides detailed information about the characteristics, hazards, handling, storage, and emergency response procedures for a particular chemical substance or product.
Multi-Currency: The capability or feature of a financial or transactional system to handle and process transactions involving multiple currencies, accommodating international trade or business activities.
Multi-Language: The capability or feature of a system, software, or communication platform to support or accommodate multiple languages, enabling users from different linguistic backgrounds to interact and communicate effectively.
Multinational Company: A company or corporation that operates or has business activities in multiple countries or regions, often with subsidiaries, branches, or facilities located in different geographic locations.
Multiple-Car Rate: A transportation rate or pricing structure that applies to the movement of multiple cars or railcars as a single shipment or consignment, providing cost savings or discounts compared to individual car rates.
Multi-Skilled: Referring to individuals or employees who possess a diverse range of skills, competencies, or knowledge in multiple areas or disciplines, allowing them to perform various tasks or roles within a logistics or supply chain context.
Malpractice: Negligent or improper conduct, actions, or behavior by a professional, such as a doctor, lawyer, or accountant, that deviates from accepted standards or practices and results in harm or injury to a client or patient.
Mandamu: A term that does not appear to have a commonly known meaning in the context of logistics and shipping. It may be specific to a particular industry or region, but further clarification or context is needed to provide an accurate explanation.
Manifest: A document that lists the details of goods, cargo, or passengers being transported, including descriptions, quantities, weights, origin, destination, and other relevant information, often used for customs clearance, transportation planning, and record-keeping purposes.
Marine Insurance: Insurance coverage that protects against loss or damage to goods, vessels, or marine-related liabilities during maritime transportation, including risks such as fire, theft, collision, or natural disasters.
Maritime: Relating to or associated with activities, operations, or industries related to sea or maritime transportation, shipping, navigation, or commerce.
Maritime Domain: The area or territory encompassing oceans, seas, and waterways where maritime activities, including shipping, fishing, exploration, and naval operations, take place.
Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA): The ability to monitor, track, and gather information about activities, threats, or risks within the maritime domain, using technologies, systems, and intelligence to enhance situational awareness, security, and safety.
Maritime Security and Safety Information System (MSSIS): A system or platform that collects, analyzes, and disseminates security and safety-related information within the maritime domain, facilitating communication and collaboration among stakeholders, authorities, and organizations involved in maritime operations.
MarView: A term that does not appear to have a commonly known meaning in the context of logistics and shipping. Further clarification or context is needed to provide an accurate explanation.
Marking: The process of applying labels, tags, codes, or other identification marks on packages, containers, or products to provide information about the contents, handling instructions, destination, or other relevant details.
Marlinespike: A nautical tool or device used for various tasks or operations aboard a ship, often related to rope work, knot tying, splicing, or general seamanship.
Master Inbound: A logistics or transportation term that may refer to a master plan or strategy for managing inbound shipments, including coordination, scheduling, and optimization of supplier deliveries to ensure efficient and timely receipt of goods or materials.
Mate's Receipt: A document issued by the mate or officer in charge of a vessel acknowledging the receipt of goods or cargo on board, serving as evidence of the quantity, condition, and responsibility for the cargo during transportation.
MBM: Abbreviation for Management by Means, referring to a management philosophy or approach that focuses on achieving organizational goals or objectives through efficient allocation and utilization of resources.
MCFS: Abbreviation for Motor Carrier Freight Classification, referring to a standardized system used to categorize or classify freight based on various characteristics, such as size, weight, density, and handling requirements, to determine transportation rates and charges.
Measurement Cargo: Goods or cargo that are charged or priced based on their volume, dimensions, or other physical measurements, rather than their weight or mass.
Measurement Ton: A unit of measurement used in transportation to calculate the freight or shipping charges based on the volume or space occupied by goods or cargo, typically equivalent to one cubic meter or 1,000 kilograms.
Mechanically Ventilated Container: A specialized shipping container equipped with ventilation systems or devices to control air circulation and maintain specific environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, or air quality, for the transportation of certain goods or products.
Megaports Initiative: A global security program or initiative aimed at enhancing the detection and prevention of illicit materials, including nuclear and radiological materials, at seaports using advanced scanning and screening technologies.
Memorandum Bill of Lading: A document issued as a receipt or evidence of a contract of carriage, usually non-negotiable, containing abbreviated or summarized details of the main bill of lading, often used for internal or administrative purposes.
Memorandum Freight Bill: A document that provides a summary or consolidated view of the freight charges or costs associated with multiple shipments or consignments, often used for accounting, billing, or financial purposes.
Meter: A unit of measurement used to quantify length, distance, or volume, commonly used in logistics and shipping to measure quantities of goods, cargo, or fuel.
Metric Ton: A unit of measurement used to quantify weight or mass, equal to 1,000 kilograms or approximately 2,204.62 pounds, commonly used in international trade and shipping.
Microbridge: A transportation service or solution that involves the movement of goods or cargo over a short distance, often using smaller vehicles or equipment, to bridge the gap between different transportation modes or terminals.
Mile: A unit of measurement used to quantify distance, equal to 5,280 feet or approximately 1.609 kilometers, commonly used in logistics, transportation, and mapping.
Mini Landbridge: A transportation mode or service that combines multiple modes, such as sea and rail or sea and road, to move goods or cargo between a seaport and an inland destination, typically involving a shorter distance than traditional land bridge services.
Minimum Bill of Lading: The minimum or lowest charge applied for issuing a bill of lading or providing transportation services, regardless of the actual weight, volume, or value of the shipment.
Minimum Charge: The minimum amount or fee applied for a particular service or transaction, often used to cover fixed costs or ensure a certain level of profitability.
Mixed Container Load: A shipment or load that consists of multiple types of goods, products, or items consolidated within a single shipping container, often belonging to different customers or consignees.
MLB: Abbreviation for Main Line Berth, referring to a designated berth or docking area at a seaport where mainline vessels, typically large ocean-going ships, can load or unload cargo.
M.M.F.B.: Abbreviation for Multimodal/Multicarrier Freight Bill, referring to a document that provides details of transportation charges, fees, or costs associated with a multimodal or multicarrier shipment, often used for billing or accounting purposes.
Modified Atmosphere: A controlled or altered composition of gases, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, within a package or container, used to extend the shelf life or freshness of perishable goods, such as food or flowers.
MSA: Abbreviation for Master Services Agreement, referring to a contractual agreement between two or more parties that establishes the terms, conditions, and general framework for providing services or conducting business together.
MSP: Abbreviation for Managed Service Provider, referring to a company or organization that offers comprehensive management and support services for specific functions, processes, or operations, often on an outsourced basis.
MT: Abbreviation for Metric Ton, referring to a unit of measurement used to quantify weight or mass, equal to 1,000 kilograms or approximately 2,204.62 pounds.
MTSA: Abbreviation for Maritime Transportation Security Act, referring to a U.S. federal law enacted to enhance the security of the maritime transportation system, including seaports, vessels, and related facilities, to prevent acts of terrorism or unlawful activities.
Multimodal: Referring to the use of multiple modes of transportation, such as road, rail, sea, or air, in combination to move goods or cargo from one location to another, often providing flexibility, cost savings, or improved efficiency.
MultiTank Container: A specialized shipping container designed to carry multiple types of liquid cargoes in separate compartments or tanks within a single container unit, allowing for efficient and secure transportation of different liquids.
National Carrier: A transportation company that operates within a specific country and provides shipping services domestically.
National Industrial Transportation League: An organization that represents the interests of shippers and transportation companies in the United States, focusing on improving freight transportation and logistics.
Nationalization: The process of transferring private assets or industries into government ownership and control.
National Motor Bus Operators Organization: An association representing bus operators at the national level, advocating for their interests and promoting collaboration within the industry.
National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC): A standard system used to classify and rate different types of commodities for transportation pricing and regulations in the United States.
National Railroad Corporation: A government-owned or controlled entity responsible for operating and managing a country's railway system.
Negotiable BOL: A Bill of Lading document that can be transferred to another party as a means of transferring ownership or rights to the goods being shipped.
Negotiations: The process of discussing and reaching an agreement or settlement between two or more parties to resolve a dispute or achieve a mutually beneficial outcome.
Net Assets: The value of an organization's total assets minus its total liabilities, representing the net worth or equity of the entity.
Net Weight: The weight of goods or cargo excluding any packaging or containers in which they are contained.
New Product Introduction (NPI): The process of launching a new product into the market, involving various stages such as development, testing, manufacturing, and marketing.
Node: A point or location within a transportation or logistics network where goods or information flow converge or are transferred.
No Location (No Loc): A term indicating that a specific location or address for a shipment is not available or provided.
Non-Certificated carrier: A transportation company that does not possess a certificate or license issued by a regulatory authority, often operating on a smaller scale or in niche markets.
Nonconformity: A deviation or failure to meet specified requirements or standards, often referring to a defect or non-compliance in goods or services.
Non-Negotiable BOL: A Bill of Lading document that cannot be transferred or assigned to another party, typically used when the ownership or rights to the goods being shipped should not change during transit.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): An agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, aimed at promoting free trade and reducing barriers among the participating countries.
NOS/NES: Acronyms for "Not otherwise specified" and "Not elsewhere specified," indicating that the specific details or characteristics of a shipment are not provided or are not relevant for a particular purpose.
Notify Party: The person or entity designated to receive notifications or information regarding the arrival or status of a shipment or transportation.
NOX: Abbreviation for nitrogen oxides, which are air pollutants emitted by combustion processes, including those from transportation vehicles.
NVOCC: Abbreviation for Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier, a company that provides shipping and logistics services without owning its own vessels, often consolidating and managing shipments on behalf of customers.
Nautical Mile: A unit of measurement used in maritime and aviation contexts, equal to one minute of latitude and approximately 1.15 statute miles or 1.85 kilometers.
Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS): A multinational organization that coordinates and provides guidance for naval operations related to the safety and security of shipping in international waters.
NCB: Abbreviation for National Cargo Bureau, an organization responsible for conducting inspections and issuing certificates related to the safety and handling of dangerous goods in maritime transport.
N.C.I.T.D.: Abbreviation for the National Cargo Information and Tracking Database, a system used for tracking and managing cargo information in the United States.
NEC: Abbreviation for the National Electrical Code, a standard set of safety regulations for electrical installations in the United States.
Negotiable Instruments: Financial documents or instruments, such as promissory notes or bills of exchange, that can be transferred or assigned to another party, often used as a form of payment or credit.
NES: Abbreviation for "Not elsewhere specified," indicating that the specific details or characteristics of a shipment are not provided or are not relevant for a particular purpose.
Nested: Refers to the arrangement of goods or containers within each other, with each item or unit fitting inside another, often to optimize space during transport or storage.
Net Tare Weight: The weight of packaging materials or containers used to transport goods, subtracted from the gross weight to determine the weight of the actual contents.
Net Tonnage (NT): A measure of a ship's total usable space for cargo or passengers, calculated by subtracting the volume occupied by non-revenue spaces from the gross tonnage.
Neutral Body: An impartial entity or organization that facilitates negotiations, arbitrations, or dispute resolutions between different parties, ensuring fairness and neutrality.
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK): Also known as the Japanese Classification Society, it is a non-profit organization that provides classification and certification services for ships and maritime operations.
NOI: Abbreviation for Notice of Intent, a formal notification or declaration of an intention to take a specific action or initiate a particular process.
NOIBN: Abbreviation for Notice of Intent to Be Non-Domiciled, a notification indicating an individual or company's intention to establish residency or domicile in a different jurisdiction.
Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council: A standardized system of codes and terms used for classifying and identifying traded goods internationally, now known as the Harmonized System (HS).
Non-Dumping Certificate: A document issued by an authority confirming that goods have not been sold or exported at a price lower than their normal value in the exporting country, usually required for customs purposes.
NOR: Abbreviation for Notice of Readiness, a notification from a ship's master or operator to the port or terminal indicating that the vessel is ready for cargo operations.
NOS: Abbreviation for "Not otherwise specified," indicating that the specific details or characteristics of a shipment are not provided or are not relevant for a particular purpose.
Nose: Refers to the front end or forward part of a vehicle or container.
No-show: Refers to a situation when a person or party fails to appear or attend a scheduled appointment, reservation, or transportation service.
N.P.C.F.B.: Abbreviation for the National Poultry & Food Distributors Association, a trade organization representing companies involved in the distribution of poultry and food products.
NRT (Net Register Tons): A measure of a ship's total interior volume available for revenue-earning activities, often used for regulatory and administrative purposes.
Obsolete Inventory: Inventory that is no longer usable or saleable due to obsolescence or expiration.
Ocean Bill of Lading: A document issued by a carrier to acknowledge the receipt of goods for shipment and serves as a contract of carriage between the shipper and the carrier.
Ocean Carrier: A shipping company or vessel operator that provides transportation services for goods via oceanic routes.
OEM: Abbreviation for Original Equipment Manufacturer, a company that manufactures components or products that are used in another company's end product.
Offer: A proposal or bid made by a seller to a potential buyer, specifying the terms, conditions, and price for the sale of goods or services.
Offshore: Relating to activities or operations conducted in or involving a foreign country, often specifically referring to business operations conducted in a jurisdiction with favorable tax or regulatory conditions.
On-Demand: Refers to a service or resource that is available whenever requested or needed, typically without a fixed schedule or commitment.
One-Piece Flow: A lean manufacturing concept where each unit of a product moves through the production process individually and continuously, minimizing inventory and reducing waste.
One-Way Networks: Transportation networks designed for goods to flow in a single direction, typically used in supply chains with unidirectional movement of goods.
Online: Refers to a state or mode of operation where a system or process is connected to a network and actively interacting with it.
On-Line receiving: Receiving of goods or materials directly into an inventory system or database through electronic means, often in real-time.
Open Policy: An insurance policy that provides coverage for multiple shipments over a specific period, typically used for repetitive or frequent shipments.
Operating Differential Subsidy (ODS): Financial assistance provided by a government to a shipping company to offset the higher operating costs of operating vessels under the flag of that country.
Operating Ratio: A financial metric used in the transportation industry to assess the efficiency and profitability of a company, calculated by dividing operating expenses by operating revenue.
Operational Performance Measurements: Metrics or indicators used to assess the efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness of operational processes and activities.
Optimization: The process of maximizing efficiency, effectiveness, or performance by selecting the best possible option or configuration from available alternatives.
Order: A request or instruction for the purchase or delivery of goods or services.
Order Cycle: The time it takes from the placement of an order until the receipt of the ordered goods or services.
Order Cycle Time: The total time required to complete an order cycle, including order placement, processing, and delivery.
Order Entry and Scheduling: The process of receiving and recording customer orders and assigning them to appropriate time slots or schedules for fulfillment.
Order Fill: The percentage of customer orders that can be completely filled or fulfilled with the available inventory or stock.
Order Management: The process of managing and coordinating all activities involved in fulfilling customer orders, including order processing, inventory management, and logistics.
Order Management Costs: The costs associated with managing and processing customer orders, including labor, technology, and administrative expenses.
Order Picking: The process of selecting and collecting items from inventory to fulfill a customer order.
Order Processing: The activities involved in receiving, reviewing, and validating customer orders, including order entry, verification, and documentation.
Ordering Cost: The expenses associated with placing and processing an order, including administrative costs, procurement costs, and any applicable fees or charges.
Origin: The point or location where a shipment or transportation process begins.
OS&D: Abbreviation for Over, Short, and Damaged, referring to goods that are found to be in excess, deficient, or damaged compared to what was originally expected or documented.
Outbound Logistics: The processes and activities involved in managing and coordinating the movement of goods from a company's facilities to customers or distribution centers.
Out-of-Pocket Cost: The actual expenses incurred by a company or individual for a specific activity or transaction, typically excluding overhead or indirect costs.
Outlier: A data point or observation that significantly deviates from the expected or typical pattern or distribution, often indicating an anomaly or exceptional circumstance.
Outpartnering: A strategic approach where a company forms partnerships or alliances with external organizations to leverage their expertise, resources, or capabilities in order to achieve business objectives.
Outsource: The practice of contracting or delegating certain business functions or processes to external vendors or service providers rather than handling them in-house.
Outsourced Cost-of-Goods Sold: The cost of goods sold (COGS) that includes expenses incurred from outsourcing or subcontracting the production or manufacturing of goods.
Over-the-Road: Refers to transportation activities conducted via roadways, often involving long-haul trucking or intercity freight movement.
Owner/Operator: An individual or company that both owns and operates a commercial vehicle for transportation or freight services.
OCP: Abbreviation for Overland Common Point, a location or point where freight moving via different transportation modes can be interchanged or transferred seamlessly.
O.E.C.D.: Abbreviation for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, an international organization that promotes economic development and cooperation among member countries.
OGMSA: Abbreviation for Offshore Group of Marine and Shipping Activities, a group or association representing companies involved in offshore marine and shipping operations.
On Board: Indicates that the goods or cargo have been loaded onto a vessel or transportation vehicle for shipment.
On Deck: Refers to goods or cargo that are loaded and stowed on the deck of a vessel, often for specific handling requirements or to optimize cargo space.
Open Account: A trade arrangement where goods are shipped or delivered to the buyer without immediate payment, with the understanding that the payment will be made at a later agreed-upon date.
Open Insurance Policy: An insurance policy that provides continuous coverage for shipments or goods under specific terms and conditions, without the need to issue separate policies for each shipment.
Open Sea: Refers to maritime areas or zones that are outside the territorial waters or exclusive economic zones of any specific country.
Open Top Container: A type of shipping container that lacks a solid roof, allowing for the loading and transport of oversized or bulky cargo that cannot fit within the standard container height.
O.P.I.C.: Abbreviation for Overseas Private Investment Corporation, a U.S. government agency that provides political risk insurance and financing to American businesses operating in foreign markets.
Optimum Cube: Refers to the most efficient utilization of available space within a transportation container or storage facility, maximizing the volume or capacity of cargo that can be accommodated.
Order-Notify (O/N): A shipping arrangement where the order is placed by one entity, but the notification or bill is sent to another designated party.
ORFS: Abbreviation for Overrun and Shortage (Freight), indicating discrepancies in the quantity of goods or cargo compared to what was originally expected or documented.
Out Gate: Refers to the point or location at which goods or cargo leave a transportation terminal or facility, typically the exit gate.
Overcharge: To charge more for a product, service, or shipment than the agreed or appropriate price.
Overheight Cargo: Refers to goods or cargo that exceed the standard height limits for transportation, often requiring special handling or accommodations.
Owner Code (SCAC): A unique code assigned to transportation companies by the Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC) system, used for identification and tracking purposes in the transportation industry.
P&D Pickup and delivery: The process of collecting goods from a location and delivering them to their intended destination.
P2P Peer to Peer: A decentralized communication and transaction model where individuals or entities interact directly with each other without intermediaries.
Packing List: A document that itemizes the contents of a shipment, including the quantity, description, and weight of each item.
Pallet: A flat transport structure used for stacking and storing goods, often made of wood, plastic, or metal.
Pallet Wrapping Machine: Equipment used to wrap a protective film around palletized goods to secure and stabilize the load during transportation.
Parcel Shipment: The transportation of small packages or parcels typically handled by postal services or courier companies.
Pareto: A principle stating that a significant majority of effects come from a minority of causes, often referred to as the "80/20 rule."
Particular Average: A marine insurance term referring to partial losses or damages to cargo or the vessel caused by specific perils or accidents.
Part Standardization: The practice of using standardized components or parts in manufacturing or production processes to enhance efficiency, quality, and cost-effectiveness.
Passenger-Mile: A unit of measurement representing the transportation of one passenger over a distance of one mile.
Password: A secret combination of characters used to authenticate a user's identity and provide access to a computer system or online account.
Path to Profitability (P2P): A strategic plan or process aimed at achieving financial profitability and sustainable business growth.
Pay on Use: A payment model where the customer is charged based on the actual usage or consumption of a product or service.
Payment: The transfer of funds or financial value from one party to another in exchange for goods, services, or obligations.
Payment Collection: The process of gathering and receiving payments from customers or clients for products or services provided.
Payroll: The total amount of wages, salaries, and benefits paid by a company to its employees for a specific period.
PBIT Profit Before Interest and Tax: A financial metric that measures a company's operating profit before deducting interest expenses and taxes.
PDCA Plan-Do-Check-Action: A continuous improvement cycle consisting of planning, implementing, evaluating, and adjusting actions to achieve desired results.
Peak Demand: The period of highest demand or usage for a product, service, or resource, often occurring during specific times or seasons.
Pegging: The practice of associating or linking specific items or resources to ensure accurate tracking and identification within a system or process.
Per Diem: A daily allowance or rate provided to cover expenses such as meals, lodging, or transportation during business travel or temporary assignments.
Perfect Order: A measure of the effectiveness and accuracy of order fulfillment, indicating the successful delivery of complete, on-time, and error-free orders.
Performance and Event Management Systems: Systems or tools used to monitor, track, and analyze performance metrics and events within an organization.
Performance Measures: Quantifiable indicators used to assess the efficiency, effectiveness, or quality of a process, system, or activity.
Performance Measurement Program: A structured approach to evaluating and tracking performance metrics to drive improvement and achieve organizational goals.
Permit: An official document or authorization issued by a relevant authority that grants permission to perform a specific action, conduct certain activities, or comply with regulations.
Perpetual Inventory: A method of inventory management where the stock levels are continuously and electronically updated in real-time as goods are bought, sold, or received.
Personal Computer (PC): A small computer designed for individual use, typically used for personal and business tasks.
Personal Discrimination: Unfair treatment or differentiation based on an individual's personal characteristics, such as race, gender, age, or religion.
Physical Distribution: The activities involved in the movement and transportation of goods from the manufacturer to the end consumer.
Physical Supply: The activities involved in sourcing, procuring, and delivering raw materials and components to support production processes.
Pick/Pack: The process of selecting and gathering items from inventory (picking) and preparing them for shipment (packing).
Picking: The process of selecting or retrieving items from inventory based on a specific order or requirement.
Picking by Aisle: A method of order picking where items are selected from specific aisles or sections within a warehouse or storage facility.
Picking by Source: A method of order picking where items are selected from different sources or locations, such as multiple warehouses or suppliers.
Pick List: A document or list that specifies the items, quantities, and locations to be picked or gathered for a specific order.
Pick to Light: A picking method that uses light indicators or displays to guide workers in selecting the correct items from inventory.
Pick-Up Order: An order or request placed by a customer to collect goods or products from a specific location.
Piggyback: A transportation arrangement where one mode of transportation is carried on another, such as trucks being transported by rail.
Place Utility: The value or benefit added to a product or service by making it available at a convenient or desired location.
Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA): A four-step management method used for continuous improvement, involving planning, implementing, evaluating, and making necessary adjustments.
Planned Date: A predetermined date set for the completion or execution of a specific task, activity, or event.
Planned Order: An order or requisition for materials or products that is generated based on production plans or forecasts.
Plant Finished Goods: The inventory of completed or finished products stored at a manufacturing plant before distribution or shipment.
PM Particulate matter: A mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air, often emitted by industrial processes or vehicle emissions.
PO Purchase Order: A document issued by a buyer to a supplier, indicating the details of the products or services to be purchased.
POD Proof of Delivery: Documentation or evidence that verifies the successful delivery of goods to the intended recipient.
Point of Sale Information (POS): Data or information collected at the time of a transaction or sale, typically captured through electronic systems or registers.
Point of Use Delivery: The practice of delivering materials or supplies directly to the location where they will be used, eliminating the need for storage or inventory.
Poka Yoke (mistake proof): A method or device used in manufacturing processes to prevent or detect errors and eliminate defects.
Police Powers: The authority granted to government agencies or law enforcement to enforce laws, maintain order, and ensure public safety.
Pooling: The practice of combining resources, assets, or inventories from multiple sources to achieve efficiencies or cost savings.
Port: A location or facility where ships or vessels load, unload, and dock for the purpose of cargo handling or passenger transportation.
Port Authority: A government agency or entity responsible for managing and overseeing the operations and facilities of a port.
Port of Discharge: The port where goods or cargo are unloaded from a vessel or aircraft.
Port of Entry: The designated port where goods or cargo enter a country or customs territory for importation.
Port of Loading: The port where goods or cargo are loaded onto a vessel or aircraft for transportation.
Portal: A web-based platform or website that provides access to various resources, services, or information.
Possession Utility: The value or benefit provided by having physical control or possession of a product or resource.
Postponement: A strategy that delays the customization, assembly, or finalization of products until closer to the time of customer demand, reducing lead times and inventory holding costs.
Pre-Expediting: The process of taking proactive measures or actions to ensure timely delivery of materials or products to meet production schedules.
Prepaid: A payment arrangement where the shipping charges or expenses are paid in advance by the shipper or sender.
Prepaid Freight: The transportation costs or charges paid in advance by the shipper or consignor.
Present Value: The current worth or value of future cash flows or investments, adjusted for the time value of money.
Price Erosion: A decline or decrease in the selling price of a product or service over time, often due to market competition or changes in supply and demand.
Primary-Business Test: A criterion used to determine whether a specific activity or expense is considered necessary for the primary business operations of a company.
Primary Manufacturing Strategy: The overall approach or plan adopted by a company for producing goods, including decisions related to process design, sourcing, and production methods.
Private Carrier: A transportation company or entity that operates a fleet of vehicles exclusively for its own use, rather than providing transportation services to the general public.
Private Label: A product or brand that is manufactured or produced by one company and sold under the name or label of another company.
Private Trucking Fleets: The owned or operated trucks and vehicles of a company used for transporting goods or materials within its own supply chain.
Private Warehouse: A storage facility or warehouse owned or operated by a specific company to store its own goods or inventory.
Private Warehousing: The practice of using privately owned or operated warehouses for storing and managing inventory.
Proactive: Taking initiative and anticipating potential issues or opportunities to act in advance and prevent problems or maximize results.
Process: A series of sequential activities or steps performed to achieve a specific outcome or result.
Process Benchmarking: Comparing and evaluating the performance, efficiency, or effectiveness of a process against best practices or industry standards.
Process Improvement: The systematic approach of identifying, analyzing, and implementing changes to enhance the efficiency, quality, or effectiveness of a process.
Process Manufacturing: A method of production that involves combining ingredients or components to create a final product through chemical or physical transformation.
Process Yield: The measure of the output or yield achieved from a manufacturing or production process, often expressed as a percentage.
Procurement: The process of acquiring goods, services, or resources from external suppliers or vendors to meet the needs of an organization.
Product: A tangible item or good produced through manufacturing, processing, or assembly, which is offered for sale or distribution.
Product Characteristics: The distinctive features, attributes, or qualities that define a product and differentiate it from others in the market.
Product Description: A written or verbal explanation of the features, functions, and specifications of a product.
Product Family: A group or category of related products that share common characteristics, features, or target markets.
Product ID: A unique identifier or code assigned to a specific product for identification, tracking, or inventory management purposes.
Production Capacity: The maximum amount of output or volume that a production system or facility can generate within a given time period.
Production Line: An arrangement of equipment, machinery, and workstations used in a sequential manner to manufacture or assemble products.
Production Planning and Scheduling: The process of determining the optimal sequence, timing, and allocation of resources for manufacturing operations to meet customer demand.
Production-Related Material: Materials, components, or supplies used in the production or manufacturing process to create finished goods.
Productivity: A measure of efficiency that relates output or results to the resources, time, or effort expended in achieving them.
Profit Ratio: A financial ratio that compares the profitability of a company by measuring the relationship between its profits and sales revenue.
Profitability Analysis: The examination and evaluation of a company's financial performance and profitability, often by analyzing various factors, costs, and revenue streams.
Profitable to Promise: A concept or strategy in which a company commits to fulfilling customer orders or requests only if they are economically viable and profitable.
Profit Before Interest and Tax (PBIT): A financial measure that represents a company's operating profit or earnings before deducting interest expenses and taxes.
Pro-forma: A projected or estimated financial statement or report based on assumptions, forecasts, or hypothetical scenarios.
Pro Forma Invoice: A preliminary or estimated invoice provided to a buyer before the actual shipment of goods, often used for customs purposes or as a quote.
Promotion: Activities or strategies undertaken to promote or advertise a product, service, or brand to increase awareness, generate sales, or build customer loyalty.
Pro Number: A unique identifier or reference number assigned to a specific shipment or delivery for tracking and documentation purposes.
Proof of Delivery (POD): Documentation or evidence that verifies the successful delivery of goods to the intended recipient, often signed by the recipient or carrier representative.
Proportional Rate: A rate or charge that is proportionally determined based on the quantity, weight, or value of goods being transported.
Protocol: A set of rules, procedures, or standards that govern the exchange of information or communication between systems, devices, or entities.
Public Warehouse: A storage facility or warehouse that provides storage, handling, and distribution services to multiple companies or customers.
Public Warehousing: The practice of using third-party or commercially operated warehouses to store and manage inventory.
Public Warehouse Receipt: A document issued by a public warehouse as evidence of the storage and ownership of goods or inventory.
Pull Signal: A signal or trigger that initiates the replenishment or production of goods based on actual demand or consumption.
Pull or Pull-Through Distribution: A distribution method where goods are pulled or delivered to the point of sale or consumption based on actual customer demand or orders.
Pull Ordering System: A system or approach where inventory is replenished based on actual demand or orders, often triggered by customer requests or consumption.
Purchase Order (PO): A document issued by a buyer to a seller, formally requesting the purchase of goods or services.
Purchase Price Discount: A reduction or deduction in the purchase price of goods or services, often provided as an incentive or negotiation benefit.
Purchasing: The function or process of acquiring goods, services, or resources from external suppliers or vendors.
Pure Raw Material: Unprocessed or unrefined material that is used as an input in manufacturing or production processes.
Push Distribution: A distribution method where goods are pushed or delivered to distribution channels or retail outlets based on forecasts, production schedules, or inventory levels.
Push Ordering System: A system or approach where inventory is replenished based on forecasts or predetermined schedules, often determined by production plans or inventory levels.
Push Technology: A method or system where information or content is delivered or pushed to users or devices without their explicit request or query.
Put Away: The process of placing or storing goods or inventory in designated locations within a warehouse or storage facility.
P&I: Abbreviation for Protection and Indemnity, which refers to insurance coverage for maritime liabilities.
PADAG: Abbreviation for Payment After Delivery and Acceptance of Goods, a payment term where the buyer pays the seller after receiving and accepting the goods.
Paired Ports: Two ports that have a mutually beneficial relationship or connection, often used for transshipment or trade purposes.
Panamax Tanker: A type of tanker vessel that is designed to fit within the maximum dimensions of the Panama Canal's locks.
Panamax Vessel: A ship or vessel that has the maximum size and dimensions allowed to transit through the Panama Canal.
Paper Ramp: A temporary or makeshift ramp made of paper or similar materials to facilitate the loading or unloading of goods.
Paper Rate: A freight rate or charge quoted or agreed upon based on paper or documentation rather than actual weight or volume.
Parcel Receipt: The act of receiving or accepting a parcel or package from a carrier or delivery service.
Partial Shipments: The shipment of goods or products in multiple deliveries or consignments, rather than as a complete or single shipment.
Payee: The person or entity to whom a payment is made or intended to be made.
Payer: The person or entity responsible for making a payment.
Perils of the Sea: Risks or hazards that are inherent in maritime transportation, such as storms, shipwrecks, or collisions.
Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate: A document issued by a competent authority certifying that plants, plant products, or other regulated items meet specific phytosanitary requirements.
Pickup: The act of collecting or retrieving goods or items from a specific location or supplier.
Pier: A structure or platform extending from the shore or waterfront into the water, often used for docking ships or vessels.
Pier-to-House: A transportation service or delivery method where goods are transported from a pier or port directly to a customer's residence or location.
Pier-to-Pier: A transportation service or delivery method where goods are transported directly between piers or ports.
Piggy Packer: A specialized equipment or vehicle used to load or unload containers onto flatbed trailers or railcars.
Place of Delivery: The designated location or address where goods or cargo are to be delivered or received.
Place of Receipt: The designated location or address where goods or cargo are initially received or picked up.
Plimsoll Mark: A set of markings on the hull of a ship indicating the maximum allowable load or draft in different water conditions.
POD: Abbreviation for Proof of Delivery, which refers to documentation or evidence that verifies the successful delivery of goods to the intended recipient.
Point of Origin: The specific location or place where a shipment or transportation journey begins.
POL: Abbreviation for Port of Loading, which refers to the port where goods or cargo are loaded onto a vessel or aircraft for transportation.
Pomerene Act: A U.S. federal law that regulates ocean shipping and maritime activities, including cargo rates, contracts, and competition.
Port of Call: A designated port or location where a ship or vessel stops to load or unload cargo or passengers.
Port of Exit: The port where goods or cargo leave a country or customs territory for exportation.
PPI: Abbreviation for Prepaid Insurance, which refers to insurance coverage that is paid in advance.
Port Facility Security Officer: An individual designated by a port facility to be responsible for implementing and maintaining security measures in accordance with relevant regulations or guidelines.
Port Facility Security Plan: A comprehensive plan developed by a port facility to address and mitigate security risks or threats.
Port Security: The measures, procedures, and systems implemented to ensure the security and safety of ports, vessels, and related activities.
Port Security Grant Program (PSGP): A program established by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to provide funding for port security initiatives and projects.
Pratique Certificate: A certificate issued by health authorities or port officials certifying that a ship or vessel is free from contagious diseases and can enter a port.
Pre-cooling: The process of cooling perishable goods or products before storage or transportation to extend their shelf life or maintain quality.
Prepaid (Ppd.): A payment arrangement where shipping charges or expenses are paid in advance by the shipper or sender.
Product Tanker: A type of tanker vessel specifically designed for the transportation of liquid cargo, such as petroleum products.
Pro Rata: In proportion to a specific share or ratio, often used to allocate costs, charges, or benefits.
Project Rate: A special or negotiated rate or charge applicable to a specific project or assignment, often based on unique requirements or circumstances.
Public Service Commission: A government agency or regulatory body that oversees and regulates public utilities, transportation, or other essential services.
Publishing Agent: A person or entity authorized to represent and promote an author or work in the publishing industry.
Pulp Temperature: The temperature at which perishable goods or products, such as fruits or vegetables, are stored or transported to maintain their freshness.
Pup: A short trailer or container that is pulled or hauled by a truck or tractor.
Panama-United States Trade Promotion Agreement: A bilateral trade agreement between Panama and the United States that promotes trade and investment between the two countries.
Parcel/Package/Small Parcel/Small Package: A small or compact package or item that is typically shipped or delivered individually.
Payment Terms: The agreed-upon conditions, timeframe, or requirements for making payments in a business transaction or agreement.
Political Risk: The potential risks or uncertainties arising from political factors, such as changes in government policies, regulations, or stability, that may impact business operations or investments.
Product Classification: The categorization or classification of goods or products based on specific criteria, such as industry standards, regulatory requirements, or trade agreements.
Proforma Invoice: A preliminary or estimated invoice provided to a buyer before the actual shipment of goods, often used for customs purposes or as a quote.
QR (Quick Response): A strategy or approach aimed at rapidly addressing customer demands, typically associated with timely and efficient responses to market changes or customer inquiries.
Quality Circle: A group of employees within an organization who voluntarily come together to identify and solve work-related problems, with the goal of improving quality, productivity, and employee satisfaction.
Quality Control: The process of ensuring that products or services meet specified quality standards through inspection, testing, and corrective actions, thereby minimizing defects or deviations from desired outcomes.
Quick Response (QR): A strategy or approach aimed at rapidly addressing customer demands, typically associated with timely and efficient responses to market changes or customer inquiries.
Quoin: A wedge-shaped device used to secure or stabilize objects, often used in printing and shipbuilding to lock or hold materials in place.
Radio Frequency (RF): The use of electromagnetic waves within a specific frequency range for various wireless communication and data transmission purposes.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): A technology that uses radio waves to automatically identify and track objects or items equipped with RFID tags.
Ramp Rate: The rate at which a system or process can be adjusted or scaled up or down to accommodate changes in demand or capacity.
Rationing: The controlled distribution or allocation of scarce resources or goods to ensure fair access or to manage shortages.
Raw Materials (RM): The basic materials or substances used in the production or manufacturing of goods before any processing or transformation occurs.
Real Time: The immediate or instantaneous processing, transmission, or display of data or information as it occurs, without any noticeable delay.
Receiving: The process of accepting, inspecting, and documenting incoming shipments or goods into a warehouse or facility.
Receiving Dock: A designated area or platform where incoming shipments or goods are unloaded, inspected, and checked into a facility.
Reengineering: The fundamental redesign and restructuring of business processes, systems, and workflows to achieve significant improvements in performance, efficiency, and outcomes.
Refrigerated Carriers: Transportation companies or vehicles equipped with temperature-controlled units or systems to transport perishable or temperature-sensitive goods.
Release-to-Start Manufacturing: The authorization or approval to commence the production or manufacturing process for a specific order or batch.
Replenishment: The process of restocking or resupplying inventory or goods to maintain desired stock levels and meet customer demand.
Request for Information (RFI): A formal solicitation or inquiry used by organizations to gather information or details about products, services, or capabilities from potential suppliers or vendors.
Request for Proposal (RFP): A formal document or invitation used by organizations to solicit detailed proposals from suppliers or vendors for specific products, services, or projects.
Request for Quote (RFQ): A formal request or invitation for suppliers or vendors to provide pricing information or quotations for specific products or services.
Resellers: Businesses or individuals who purchase products or services from manufacturers or wholesalers and then sell them to end customers or consumers.
Resource Driver: A factor or activity that consumes or drives the consumption of resources, often used in cost accounting or activity-based costing.
Resources: The various assets, materials, equipment, personnel, or capabilities available to an organization for carrying out its operations or activities.
Retailer: A business or entity that sells goods or products directly to end customers or consumers.
Return Disposal Costs: The expenses associated with the disposal or management of returned goods or products that cannot be resold or reused.
Return Goods Handling: The processes and activities involved in managing returned goods, including inspection, sorting, restocking, or disposition.
Return Material Authorization or Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA): A document or authorization issued by a seller or manufacturer to authorize the return of goods by a customer for repair, replacement, or refund.
Return on Assets (ROA): A financial metric that measures the profitability or effectiveness of an organization's use of its assets in generating profits.
Return on Sales: A financial ratio that measures the profitability of a company's sales revenue by comparing it to its net income.
Return Order Management Costs: The costs associated with managing and processing return orders, including administrative, operational, and logistical expenses.
Return Product Authorization (RPA): A document or authorization issued by a seller or manufacturer to authorize the return of a specific product by a customer.
Return to Vendor (RTV): The process of returning goods or products back to the original supplier or vendor for various reasons, such as defects, quality issues, or excess inventory.
Returns Inventory Costs: The costs associated with storing, managing, or handling returned goods or products within a company's inventory.
Returns Material Acquisition, Finance, Planning, and IT Costs: The costs incurred in acquiring, financing, planning, and managing returned materials or products, including activities related to reverse logistics.
Returns Processing Cost: The costs incurred in inspecting, sorting, restocking, repairing, or disposing of returned goods or products.
Returns to Scale: A concept in economics that refers to the relationship between input and output, where increasing the scale or volume of production leads to proportionate increases in efficiency or cost savings.
Reverse Engineering: The process of analyzing and deconstructing a product or system to understand its design, functionality, or components.
Reverse Logistics: The management of the flow of goods, materials, or products from their final destination back to their point of origin or to a designated disposal or recycling facility.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): A technology that uses radio waves to automatically identify and track objects or items equipped with RFID tags.
Roof Fairings: Aerodynamic devices or structures installed on the roof of a vehicle or trailer to reduce air resistance and improve fuel efficiency.
Root Cause Analysis: A systematic process of identifying and addressing the underlying causes or factors contributing to a problem or issue.
Route Trucks Delivery: The transportation or delivery of goods or products using trucks following specific routes or schedules.
Routing or Routing Guide: The process of determining the optimal or most efficient path or sequence for moving goods or shipments from one location to another.
Routing Accuracy: The degree of precision or correctness in following the prescribed or planned route for the movement of goods or shipments.
RTV (Return to Vendor): The process of returning goods or products back to the original supplier or vendor for various reasons, such as defects, quality issues, or excess inventory.
Rules: Defined guidelines, regulations, or principles that govern or guide the operation, behavior, or decision-making within an organization or industry.
Rag Top: A slang term used to refer to a convertible car with a fabric or soft-top roof.
Rail Division: A specialized division or segment within a transportation or logistics company that focuses on rail transportation services.
Rail Grounding: The process of establishing an electrical connection between a railcar and the ground to prevent the buildup of static electricity.
Ramp: A sloped or inclined surface used to facilitate the loading or unloading of goods, often between different levels or heights.
Ramp-to-Door: A transportation service or delivery method where goods are transported from a ramp or facility directly to a customer's door or location.
Ramp-to-Ramp: A transportation service or delivery method where goods are transported between two ramps or facilities without direct involvement in the door-to-door delivery.
Rate Basis: The criteria or factors used to calculate or determine freight rates or charges, such as weight, volume, distance, or service type.
Reasonableness: The quality or characteristic of being fair, rational, or justifiable, often used in the context of evaluating costs, decisions, or actions.
Rebate: A partial refund or return of a portion of the purchase price, often provided as an incentive or discount.
Reconsignment: The process of redirecting or changing the delivery destination or consignee of a shipment while it is in transit.
Recourse: The legal or contractual right to demand payment or seek compensation from a party in case of non-payment, default, or failure to fulfill obligations.
Red Label: A label or marking used to indicate special handling requirements or restrictions for hazardous or dangerous goods.
Reefer: Short for "refrigerated," it refers to temperature-controlled containers or vehicles used for transporting perishable or temperature-sensitive goods.
Related Points: Locations or places that are connected, associated, or relevant in the context of transportation, logistics, or supply chain operations.
RFP: Abbreviation for Request for Proposal, a formal document or invitation used by organizations to solicit detailed proposals from suppliers or vendors for specific products, services, or projects.
RFQ: Abbreviation for Request for Quote, a formal request or invitation for suppliers or vendors to provide pricing information or quotations for specific products or services.
Relay: The transfer or handoff of goods or shipments from one transportation mode or carrier to another to continue the journey towards the final destination.
Remittance: A payment or amount of money sent as a form of payment, often used in the context of invoices, bills, or financial transactions.
Restricted Articles: Goods or products that are subject to specific regulations, restrictions, or limitations due to their nature, characteristics, or potential risks.
Revenue Ton (RT): A unit of measure used in transportation to calculate freight charges based on the weight or volume of the goods, whichever is higher.
Reverse IPI: Short for "Reverse Intra-Plant Inventory," it refers to the inventory or stock that is in transit or moving within a plant or facility but in the opposite direction compared to the usual flow.
Ro/Ro: Abbreviation for "Roll-On/Roll-Off," it refers to a method of loading and unloading goods or vehicles onto a vessel or transport equipment using ramps or platforms.
Roll: A verb used to describe the movement or transportation of goods or shipments, often in the context of rolling them onto a conveyance or vehicle.
Rolling: The continuous or ongoing movement of goods, vehicles, or shipments, often used to describe transportation activities or processes.
Route: The specific path, itinerary, or sequence followed for the movement or transportation of goods or shipments from one location to another.
Running Gear: The mechanical components or systems of a vehicle or equipment that support its movement, such as wheels, axles, suspensions, or brakes.
RVNX (Released Value Not Exceeding): A contractual term indicating the maximum declared value or liability limitation for goods or shipments in transportation contracts.
S&OP (Sales and Operations Planning): A cross-functional process that aligns sales and operations activities to create an integrated plan for meeting customer demand while optimizing resources and achieving business goals.
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers): An international professional association that develops technical standards and guidelines for the automotive and aerospace industries.
Safety Stock: A buffer inventory held to protect against fluctuations in demand or supply to ensure sufficient stock is available to meet customer requirements.
Salable Goods: Products or goods that are suitable for sale or distribution to customers.
Sales Mix: The proportion or combination of different products or services sold by a company or business, which affects revenue and profitability.
Sales Plan: A strategic document outlining sales objectives, targets, strategies, and tactics to guide the sales team in achieving revenue goals.
Sales Planning: The process of setting sales targets, developing strategies, and allocating resources to achieve sales objectives.
Sawtooth Diagram: A graphical representation of inventory levels over time, showing the cyclic pattern of stock accumulation and depletion.
Scalability: The ability of a system, process, or business to handle and adapt to increased workload or growth without significant disruptions or loss of performance.
Scan: The process of capturing or reading data, such as barcodes or RFID tags, using scanning devices to collect information about products, inventory, or shipments.
Scanlon Plan: A gain-sharing program that provides employees with financial incentives based on productivity improvements and cost savings achieved.
SCE (Supply Chain Execution): The management and control of activities involved in the physical flow of goods, information, and resources within the supply chain.
SCEM (Supply Chain Event Management): The proactive monitoring, identification, and management of events or disruptions in the supply chain to minimize their impact on operations.
Scenario Planning: A strategic planning technique that involves creating and analyzing multiple hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the potential outcomes and develop contingency plans.
SCM (Supply Chain Management): The coordination and integration of all activities involved in the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and logistics of products, aiming to optimize the overall supply chain performance.
SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model): A framework that provides a standardized language, metrics, and best practices for describing, measuring, and improving supply chain processes and performance.
Scorecard: A performance measurement tool that uses key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate and track progress towards strategic objectives or targets.
Seasonality: The regular and predictable pattern of fluctuations in demand or sales volume that occurs in certain industries or products due to seasonal variations or factors.
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET): A security protocol and framework for ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of electronic payment transactions over open networks.
Self Billing: A process where a customer creates and issues invoices to the supplier based on the agreed transaction details, eliminating the need for the supplier to generate invoices.
Self Correcting: The ability of a system or process to identify and correct errors or discrepancies automatically without human intervention.
SG&A (Selling, General, and Administrative) Expenses: The operating expenses incurred by a company related to sales, marketing, administration, and other general functions not directly tied to production.
Serial Number: A unique identification number or code assigned to individual items, products, or components to track and trace them throughout the supply chain.
Service Level: A measure of performance indicating the percentage of customer demand or orders fulfilled within a specified time frame.
Service Parts Revenue: Revenue generated from the sale of spare parts or service-related products associated with a company's main products or equipment.
SET (Secure Electronic Transaction): A security protocol and framework for ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of electronic payment transactions over open networks.
Shared Services: A centralized model where common support services, such as HR, IT, or finance, are consolidated and provided to multiple business units or departments within an organization.
Shareholder Value: The financial value or return generated for shareholders or investors of a company through increases in stock price, dividends, or other financial measures.
Shelf Life: The period or duration for which a product remains usable, safe, or effective for consumption or sale.
Shewhart Cycle: Also known as the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, it is a continuous improvement framework for problem-solving and process improvement.
Shingo's Seven Wastes: A concept introduced by Shigeo Shingo that identifies seven types of waste in manufacturing processes: overproduction, waiting, transportation, processing, inventory, motion, and defects.
Shipper: A person, company, or organization that sends or ships goods or products to a specific destination.
Shipper-Carriers: Companies that act as both shippers and carriers, taking responsibility for transporting their own goods as well as goods of other shippers.
Shipping: The process of transporting goods or products from one location to another, typically involving the use of various modes of transportation.
Shipping Lane: A predefined route or path used for the transportation of goods or cargo between specific origins and destinations.
Shipping Manifest: A document that lists the details of goods being transported, including quantity, description, weight, and destination, serving as a record and reference for shipping operations.
Shop Calendar: Also known as the manufacturing calendar, it defines the working days and hours of a manufacturing facility, considering holidays, shifts, and planned downtime.
Shop Floor Production Control Systems: Information systems or software used to monitor, control, and coordinate manufacturing activities on the shop floor, including production scheduling, inventory management, and workflow control.
Short Shipment: A situation where a shipment or delivery is incomplete, with fewer items or quantities received than ordered or expected.
Shrinkage: The loss or reduction in inventory levels due to theft, damage, spoilage, obsolescence, or other factors.
Sigma: A statistical term representing the standard deviation and a measure of process variability, commonly associated with Six Sigma methodologies.
Six-Sigma Quality: A set of methodologies and tools aimed at reducing defects and improving process performance to achieve a level of quality that corresponds to no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
SKU (Stock-Keeping Unit): A unique code or identifier assigned to a specific product or item in inventory management to track and manage its stock levels and variations.
Skills Matrix: A visual tool or table that identifies and maps the skills, competencies, or qualifications of employees within an organization.
Slotting: The process of optimizing the placement or allocation of products or inventory within a warehouse or distribution center to improve efficiency, accessibility, and picking operations.
Small Group Improvement Activity: A structured approach that involves small cross-functional teams working together to identify, analyze, and implement improvement opportunities within a specific area or process.
SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Based): A mnemonic acronym used to guide the setting of objectives and goals, ensuring they are clear, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound.
SOP (Standard Operating Procedure): A documented set of step-by-step instructions or guidelines that describe how specific tasks, processes, or activities should be performed within an organization to ensure consistency and quality.
SOW (Statement of Work): A document that outlines the specific deliverables, scope of work, timeline, and other project-related details agreed upon between a client and a service provider.
Spam: Unsolicited or unwanted email messages, often sent in bulk, typically for advertising or promotional purposes.
SPC (Statistical Process Control): A method of quality control that uses statistical techniques to monitor and control process variation, ensuring products or processes meet desired quality standards.
Split Delivery: A delivery method where a single order or shipment is divided into multiple deliveries to different locations or recipients.
Spot Demand: Unexpected or unplanned demand for a product or service that arises due to specific events, conditions, or customer requirements.
Staging: The process of preparing or assembling items, components, or products in a specific area or location before they are used or transported to the next stage in the production or distribution process.
Stakeholders: Individuals, groups, or organizations that have a vested interest or are directly affected by the activities, decisions, or outcomes of a project, initiative, or business.
Standard Components: Generic or off-the-shelf parts or components that are readily available and widely used in the design, manufacturing, or assembly of products.
Standard Cost Accounting System: An accounting method that assigns standard costs to products or activities based on predetermined benchmarks, facilitating cost control, variance analysis, and performance evaluation.
Standing Order: Also known as a blanket purchase order, it is a prearranged agreement between a buyer and a supplier for recurring or regular purchases of goods or services.
Statement of Work (SOW): A document that outlines the specific deliverables, scope of work, timeline, and other project-related details agreed upon between a client and a service provider.
Statistical Process Control (SPC): A method of quality control that uses statistical techniques to monitor and control process variation, ensuring products or processes meet desired quality standards.
Stickering: The process of applying adhesive labels or stickers to products or packaging for identification, pricing, branding, or other purposes.
Stock-Keeping Unit (SKU): A unique code or identifier assigned to a specific product or item in inventory management to track and manage its stock levels and variations.
Straight Truck: A type of commercial truck or vehicle with a single rigid frame, typically used for local or regional deliveries and having the cab and cargo area on a single chassis.
Strategic Alliance: A cooperative relationship or partnership between two or more organizations with shared objectives, resources, or expertise to achieve mutual benefits or competitive advantage.
Sub-Optimization: A situation where individual components or functions within a system or process are optimized at the expense of the overall system's efficiency or performance.
Subcontracting: The practice of outsourcing or assigning a portion of work, tasks, or services to an external subcontractor or third-party provider.
Subhauler: A carrier or trucking company that operates as a subcontractor under the authority or contract of another primary carrier.
Sunk Cost: A cost that has already been incurred and cannot be recovered or changed by future actions or decisions.
Supplier: An individual, company, or organization that provides goods, materials, services, or components to another entity as part of the supply chain or production process.
Supplier Certification: The process of assessing and verifying the capabilities, quality standards, and compliance of a supplier against specific requirements or criteria.
Supplier-Owned Inventory: Inventory or stock that is physically located at the premises or under the control of a supplier, rather than being owned or held by the buyer or customer.
Supply Chain: The network of organizations, activities, resources, and processes involved in the creation, production, distribution, and delivery of goods or services to end customers.
Supply Chain Design: The strategic process of configuring, optimizing, and structuring the elements of a supply chain, including network design, facility location, and distribution strategies.
Supply Chain Strategic Planning: The long-term planning process that aligns supply chain objectives, capabilities, and resources with overall business strategies and goals.
Supply Planning: The process of determining the optimal quantity, timing, and sourcing of materials or products to meet customer demand and achieve supply chain objectives.
Supply Warehouse: A facility or location where goods, materials, or products are stored, managed, and distributed within the supply chain.
Support Costs: Expenses incurred in providing assistance, maintenance, or service for a product, system, or process.
Surrogate [item] Driver: A substitute or replacement item used as a representative or placeholder for another item in supply chain planning, analysis, or modeling.
Sustaining Activity: An ongoing or continuous task, action, or process that supports the operation, maintenance, or improvement of a system, product, or service.
SWOT: An acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, representing a framework for analyzing and evaluating the internal and external factors that impact an organization's performance and strategy.
SWOT Analysis: A structured method or process of assessing an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to gain insights, make strategic decisions, and develop action plans.
Synchronization: The coordination and alignment of activities, processes, or events to achieve harmonious or simultaneous operation, often within a supply chain context.
Sanction: A penalty, restriction, or action imposed by an authority or governing body as a means of enforcing compliance or punishment for violations.
SAFE Port Act: An acronym for Security and Accountability for Every Port Act, a U.S. law enacted in 2006 to enhance security measures and protect the nation's ports and shipping activities.
S/D: An abbreviation for Shipped/Received, referring to the status or documentation indicating that goods have been shipped or received.
SCAC Code: An abbreviation for Standard Carrier Alpha Code, a unique two-to-four-letter identifier assigned to transportation companies or carriers for identification and tracking purposes.
Schedule B: A classification code used for categorizing and reporting exports in the United States, based on the Harmonized System (HS) codes.
Sea-Bee Vessels: A type of cargo vessel designed to transport goods, materials, or equipment by sea, often equipped with cranes or other handling mechanisms.
Sea Waybill: A document issued by the carrier or shipping line as evidence of the contract of carriage for goods being transported by sea.
Seawaymax Vessel: A vessel that is built to the maximum dimensions allowed to navigate through the locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway, a system of canals and locks connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.
Seaworthiness: The condition or state of a vessel, indicating that it is fit and suitable for sailing or transportation at sea.
Secure Freight Initiative (SFI): A program implemented to enhance the security of containerized cargo through the use of advanced screening technologies and procedures.
SED: An abbreviation for Shipper's Export Declaration, a document required by the U.S. government for exporting certain goods.
Service: An intangible offering provided by a person or organization to meet the needs or satisfy the demands of customers.
Service Contract: A formal agreement or contract between a service provider and a client, specifying the terms, scope, and conditions of the services to be provided.
SHEX: An abbreviation for Sundays and Holidays Excluded, indicating that certain days are not included or counted in the calculation of delivery times or schedules.
SHINC: An abbreviation for Sundays and Holidays Included, indicating that certain days, including Sundays and holidays, are included or counted in the calculation of delivery times or schedules.
Ship: To transport goods or cargo by sea or other navigable waterways using a vessel or ship.
Ship Chandler: A supplier or merchant who provides provisions, supplies, equipment, or services to ships and vessels.
Ship Demurrage: A charge or penalty imposed on a shipper or charterer for exceeding the agreed-upon time allotted for loading or unloading cargo.
Ship's Bells: Traditional bells on board a ship used to indicate the time, usually rung in a pattern to mark the hours of the day.
Ship Load: The amount of cargo or goods loaded onto a ship or vessel for transportation.
Ship's Manifest: A document that lists all the cargo, passengers, and other details of a ship's voyage, serving as an official record and required by customs and port authorities.
Shipment: A quantity of goods, materials, or products transported together as a unit from one location to another.
Ship Security Officer: An individual responsible for implementing and ensuring compliance with security measures and procedures on board a ship.
Ship Security Plan: A comprehensive plan or set of procedures and measures designed to ensure the security and safety of a ship, its crew, passengers, and cargo.
Ship Types: Different classifications or categories of ships based on their design, purpose, size, or characteristics, such as container ships, tanker ships, bulk carriers, etc.
Ship's Tackle: Equipment, machinery, or devices used on board a ship for lifting, hoisting, or handling cargo or other heavy objects.
Shippers Association: An organization or group composed of shippers or companies engaged in shipping activities, working together to address common concerns, negotiate rates, or advocate for their interests.
Shipper's Instructions: Instructions provided by the shipper to the carrier or transportation company regarding the shipment of goods, including details on packaging, labeling, documentation, etc.
Shipper's Letter of Instructions: A document issued by the shipper to an airline or airfreight carrier, providing instructions for issuing an Air Waybill and other details related to the transportation of goods by air.
Shipper's Load & Count (SL&C): An indication that the shipper is responsible for the loading and counting of the goods or cargo being shipped.
Shipping Act of 1916: U.S. legislation enacted to regulate maritime transportation and commerce, including provisions related to rates, services, and competition.
Shipping Act of 1984: U.S. legislation that amended and updated the Shipping Act of 1916, providing further regulations and oversight of maritime transportation activities.
Shipping Act of 1998: U.S. legislation that further amended and updated the Shipping Act of 1916, incorporating new provisions to promote competition and fair practices in maritime transportation.
Shipping Order: A document issued by the shipper or consignor to authorize the carrier to transport goods or cargo, providing details on the shipment, destination, and other relevant information.
Ships Shore: The area or zone where ships or vessels are anchored, docked, or moored, often designated for loading, unloading, or other activities.
Short Sea Shipping (SSS): A transportation method that involves the movement of goods or cargo by sea along coastal or inland waterways, typically over shorter distances.
Short Ton (ST): A unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds or approximately 907 kilograms.
Shrink Wrap: A protective packaging material, typically a plastic film, that is tightly wrapped around a product or item to secure it, protect it from damage, or provide tamper-evident features.
Side Loader: A specialized type of forklift or truck equipped with lifting mechanisms on the side, allowing for the loading and unloading of containers or goods from the side rather than the front or rear.
Side-Door Container: A shipping container that has doors or openings on the side, enabling access to the cargo from the side rather than only through the front or rear.
Sight Draft: A type of draft or bill of exchange that is payable upon presentation or demand, typically used in international trade transactions.
SIGTTO: An acronym for the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators, an industry organization representing the interests of companies involved in the transport and handling of liquefied gas.
Skids: Platforms or pallet-like structures used for supporting and transporting goods or cargo, typically moved using forklifts or other handling equipment.
SL/W: An abbreviation for Shipper's Load and Weight, indicating that the shipper is responsible for both the loading of the goods and determining their weight.
Sleepers: Wooden or concrete cross-ties or sleepers that support and hold the rails in place on a railway track.
Sling: A flexible strap, rope, or chain used for lifting and hoisting heavy objects or cargo.
Slip: A designated area or berth where boats or ships can be moored, docked, or berthed.
SPA: An abbreviation for Sales and Purchase Agreement, a contract or agreement between a buyer and a seller specifying the terms, conditions, and obligations related to the sale or purchase of goods or assets.
Spine Car: A specialized railcar designed to carry long, heavy, or oversized loads, often used for transporting large structural components, pipes, or other lengthy items.
Spotting: The act of positioning or placing a container or trailer at a specific location for loading or unloading.
Spreader: A device or mechanism used in lifting and handling operations to grip, spread, or secure cargo or containers.
SSHEX: An abbreviation for Saturdays, Sundays, and Holidays Excluded, indicating that certain days are not included or counted in the calculation of delivery times or schedules.
Stability: The condition or quality of being stable, indicating the ability to maintain balance, equilibrium, or steady conditions.
Stack Car: A railcar designed with multiple levels or decks for transporting containers, allowing for efficient use of space and stacking of cargo.
Stacktrain: A train or transportation system consisting of intermodal containers stacked on top of each other, enabling the transport of a larger volume of containers on a single train.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC): A system of classifying industries and businesses, widely used in the United States for statistical and administrative purposes.
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC): A system of categorizing and classifying goods and products traded internationally, developed by the United Nations.
Starboard: The right-hand side of a ship or vessel when facing forward or toward the bow.
Statute Of Limitation: A legal timeframe or deadline within which legal actions, claims, or prosecutions must be initiated or pursued.
STCC: An abbreviation for Standard Transportation Commodity Code, a numeric code used to categorize and classify commodities or goods for transportation purposes.
Steamship Conference: A group or association of steamship companies that cooperate and coordinate their activities, often involving agreements on rates, routes, and schedules.
Steamship Guarantee: A financial guarantee provided by a steamship company or carrier to cover potential losses or damages associated with the transportation of goods by sea.
Stern: The rear or aft part of a ship or vessel.
Stevedore: A person or company employed to load and unload cargo or goods from ships or vessels in a port.
Store-Door Pick-Up Delivery: A service where a carrier or transportation provider picks up goods or cargo from a specific location, such as a warehouse or supplier's premises, and delivers them directly to the consignee or customer's designated location.
Stowage: The act or process of arranging and securing cargo or goods in a ship or container for safe transportation.
STC: An abbreviation for Said To Contain, indicating that the contents or cargo of a shipment are as declared by the shipper or consignor.
Straddle Carrier: A specialized vehicle or machine used for lifting and transporting containers or heavy loads in shipping terminals or ports.
Straight Bill of Lading: A type of bill of lading that designates a specific consignee or recipient of the goods and is not negotiable or transferable.
Stripping: The process of unloading or removing goods or cargo from a container, ship, or other transport equipment.
Stuffing: The process of loading or placing goods or cargo into a container, ship, or other transport equipment for shipment.
STW: An abbreviation for Sundays, Thursdays, and Wednesdays, indicating that these days are not included or counted in the calculation of delivery times or schedules.
Subrogate: To substitute or replace one party with another regarding a claim, right, or liability.
Suezmax Tanker: A type of oil tanker that is built to the maximum dimensions allowed to navigate the Suez Canal, typically carrying a capacity of around 120,000 to 200,000 deadweight tons.
Surface Transportation Board (STB): A U.S. federal regulatory agency overseeing various aspects of the railroad industry and certain aspects of other modes of transportation.
Sufferance Wharf: A designated area within a port or harbor where non-customs cleared or unmanifested goods can be held temporarily.
Surcharge: An additional fee, charge, or cost imposed on top of a base rate or price, often applied to cover specific expenses or services.
Surtax: An additional tax or duty imposed on certain goods or transactions, often as a temporary or special measure.
24/7: Denotes continuous operation or availability without interruption, all day, every day.
3D Loading: The process of optimizing the arrangement of items or cargo in a three-dimensional space for efficient and safe transportation or storage.
3PL: Abbreviation for Third Party Logistics, which refers to the outsourcing of logistics and supply chain management activities to a third-party service provider.
Tactical Planning: Short-term planning focused on the specific actions and decisions necessary to achieve immediate or near-term goals.
Tact Time: The rate or pace at which a product or unit should be produced to meet customer demand, typically measured in units of time per unit of output.
Taguchi Method: A statistical approach developed by Genichi Taguchi for improving the quality of manufactured goods and processes.
Takt Time: The average time between the start of production of one unit and the start of production of the next unit, calculated based on customer demand.
Tare Weight: The weight of packaging materials, containers, or other items used to transport or store goods, excluding the weight of the actual contents.
Target Costing: A cost management approach that aims to set product prices based on the desired profit margin and market demand, then determine the corresponding target cost to meet those objectives.
Tariff: A schedule or list of prices, fees, duties, or charges imposed by a government or carrier for specific goods or services.
Tasks: Specific activities, actions, or assignments to be completed as part of a project, process, or work plan.
T's & C's: Abbreviation for Terms and Conditions, which outline the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of parties involved in a transaction or agreement.
Tender: A formal process or invitation to submit offers, bids, or proposals for the supply of goods or services.
Terms and Conditions: The legal and contractual provisions that govern the rights, obligations, and responsibilities of parties involved in a transaction or agreement.
Theory of Constraints: A management philosophy and methodology developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt that focuses on identifying and alleviating bottlenecks or constraints to improve overall system performance.
Third Party Logistics: The outsourcing of logistics and supply chain management activities to a specialized third-party service provider.
Third Party Logistics Provider: A company or organization that offers logistics and supply chain management services to other companies as a third-party service.
Third Party Warehousing: The use of external or outsourced warehousing facilities or services provided by a third-party logistics provider.
Throughput: The rate or volume at which goods, materials, or information flow through a system, process, or operation.
TL: Abbreviation for Truckload, referring to the transportation of a full truckload of goods or cargo.
TMS: Abbreviation for Transportation Management System, a software or technology platform used for planning, executing, and optimizing transportation operations and logistics activities.
TOC: Abbreviation for Theory of Constraints, a management philosophy and methodology focused on identifying and alleviating bottlenecks or constraints to improve overall system performance.
TOFC: Abbreviation for Trailer on a Flat Car, a transportation method where truck trailers or containers are loaded onto railroad flatcars for intermodal transportation.
Total Annual Sales: The sum of all sales revenues generated by a company or business in a given year.
Total Average Inventory: The average amount or value of inventory held by a company over a specific period of time.
Total Cost Analysis: A comprehensive evaluation and assessment of all costs associated with a product, process, or operation.
Total Cost Curve: A graphical representation showing the relationship between total cost and quantity produced or sold.
Total Cost of Ownership: The total cost incurred throughout the lifecycle of a product or asset, including acquisition, operation, maintenance, and disposal costs.
Total Cumulative Manufacture Cycle Time: The total elapsed time required to manufacture a product from the beginning to the end of the production process, including all stages and activities.
Total Make Cycle Time: The total time required to make or produce a product, including all setup, processing, and downtime periods.
Total Product Revenue: The total revenue generated from the sale of a specific product or group of products.
Total Productive Maintenance: A maintenance strategy focused on maximizing equipment effectiveness and minimizing downtime through proactive maintenance practices.
Total Supply Chain Management Cost: The sum of all costs associated with managing and operating the entire supply chain, including procurement, production, transportation, and distribution costs.
Total Supply Chain Response Time: The total time required for a supply chain to respond to changes in customer demand or market conditions.
Total Test Release Cycle Time: The total time required for testing and releasing a product, from initial testing to final approval.
Touch Labor: The direct labor or manual work involved in the production or handling of goods, typically involving physical contact with the product.
Tracing: The process of tracking or following the movement or location of goods, shipments, or assets throughout the supply chain.
Tracking and Tracing: The combined process of monitoring and recording the movement and location of goods or shipments throughout the supply chain.
Trading Partner: A company, organization, or entity engaged in business transactions or collaborations with another company.
Trading Partner Agreement: A formal agreement or contract between two or more trading partners outlining the terms, conditions, and expectations of their business relationship.
Traffic: The movement of goods, vehicles, or people along transportation routes or networks.
Traffic Management: The planning, control, and coordination of traffic flow to ensure efficient and safe movement of goods, vehicles, or people.
Trailer: A large vehicle or container designed to transport goods or cargo, typically towed by a truck or tractor.
Trailer Drops: The process of detaching a trailer from a truck or tractor at a designated location or drop-off point for later pick-up or further transportation.
Transaction: An exchange or interaction between two or more parties involving the transfer of goods, services, or information.
Transaction Set: A standardized format or structure for exchanging electronic business documents between trading partners.
Transaction Set ID: A unique identifier assigned to a specific type of electronic business document or transaction set.
Transactional Acknowledgement: A communication or response indicating the receipt, acceptance, or rejection of an electronic business transaction.
Transit Time: The time required for goods or shipments to travel from one location to another, typically measured in hours, days, or weeks.
Transparency: The quality or state of being open, honest, and easily understandable, particularly in the context of business operations or information sharing.
Transportation Management System: A software or technology platform used for planning, executing, and optimizing transportation operations and logistics activities.
Transportation Mode: The method or means of transporting goods or cargo, such as by road, rail, air, or sea.
Transportation Planning: The process of determining the most efficient and cost-effective transportation methods, routes, and schedules to meet customer demand.
Transportation Planning Systems: Software or technology platforms used for transportation planning and optimization, typically incorporating features such as route planning, load optimization, and carrier selection.
Trend: A general direction or pattern of change or development, often used in forecasting or analysis.
Trend Forecasting Models: Statistical or analytical models used to predict or estimate future trends based on historical data and patterns.
Truck Stop Electrification: The provision of electrical power or services at truck stops to enable truck drivers to run their vehicles' systems without idling the engines.
Truckload Carriers: Companies or carriers specializing in providing transportation services for full truckload shipments.
Truckload Lot: A shipment or load that occupies the entire capacity of a truck trailer or container.
Turnover: The rate at which goods, inventory, or assets are replaced or replenished within a specific period, often expressed as the number of times a specific item is sold or replenished within a year.
T.&E.: Abbreviation for Transportation & Exit, referring to expenses incurred during travel and upon departure.
Tail: The rear or back end of a vehicle, container, or aircraft.
Tariff (Trf.): A schedule or list of prices, fees, duties, or charges imposed by a government or carrier for specific goods or services.
Telex: A telecommunications network or system used for sending written messages electronically.
Temperature Recorder: A device or instrument used to monitor and record temperature variations during transportation or storage of temperature-sensitive goods.
Tenor: The period or duration of a contract, agreement, or financial instrument.
Terminal: A facility or location where goods, passengers, or vehicles are loaded, unloaded, or transferred between different modes of transportation.
Terminal Charge: A fee or charge imposed for the use or services provided at a terminal facility.
Terms of Sale: The specific conditions, terms, and obligations governing the sale of goods or services between a buyer and a seller.
TBN: Abbreviation for To Be Named, indicating that a specific element or detail will be provided or specified at a later time.
TEU: Abbreviation for Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit, a standard unit of measurement for containerized cargo, representing the volume of a twenty-foot-long container.
Third Party Logistics (3PL): The outsourcing of logistics and supply chain management activities to a specialized third-party service provider.
Tonnage: The weight or cargo capacity of a vessel, often measured in tons.
Through Rate: A single freight rate covering transportation from the point of origin to the final destination, even when involving multiple carriers or modes of transportation.
Throughput Charge: A fee or charge assessed based on the volume or quantity of goods passing through a specific facility or transportation system.
Time Charter: A contractual agreement in which a vessel or transportation equipment is leased for a specific period of time.
Time Draft: A type of draft or bill of exchange that becomes payable at a specific future date or after a specified period of time.
TIR: Abbreviation for Transports Internationaux Routiers, an international customs transit system for road transportation.
Ton-Mile: A unit of measurement representing the movement of one ton of cargo over a distance of one mile, often used to assess transportation efficiency or volume.
Top-Air Delivery: A method of delivering goods or cargo from the top or upper side of a transportation vehicle or container.
Towage: The act or process of towing or pulling a vessel, barge, or other floating structure.
Tractor: A powerful motor vehicle designed for pulling or hauling heavy loads, typically used in combination with trailers or other towed equipment.
Trade Acceptance: A financial instrument or document used in international trade, indicating the acceptance of an obligation to pay by the buyer.
Tramp Line: A shipping line or company that operates vessels on irregular routes or schedules, typically carrying a variety of goods or cargoes.
Transport: The movement or conveyance of goods, people, or materials from one place to another.
Transportation & Exit (T&E): Refers to expenses incurred during travel and upon departure.
Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC): An identification card issued by the U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to individuals requiring unescorted access to secure areas of maritime facilities or vessels.
Transship: The process of transferring goods or cargo from one transportation vehicle or mode to another during the journey.
Transshipment Port: A port or facility where goods or cargo are transferred from one vessel or mode of transportation to another for onward transportation.
Trust Receipt: A legal document or agreement that allows a buyer to take possession of goods before fully paying for them, with the understanding that the goods serve as collateral for the payment.
Turnaround: The process or time required to unload, reload, service, or turn around a transportation vehicle or vessel for its next journey.
Twist Locks: Mechanical devices used to secure shipping containers or intermodal equipment together, allowing them to be stacked or locked in place.
Two-Way Pallet: A pallet designed to be accessible from two opposite sides, allowing forklifts or other handling equipment to lift or move the pallet from either direction.
Ubiquity: The state or quality of being present or available everywhere.
UCC: Abbreviation for Uniform Commercial Code, a set of standardized laws governing commercial transactions in the United States.
ULD: Abbreviation for Unit Load Device, a container or pallet used for consolidating and transporting cargo in the aviation industry.
Umbrella Rate: A comprehensive or all-inclusive rate that covers multiple services or components.
UN/SPSC: Abbreviation for United Nations Standard Product and Service Code, a global classification system for products and services.
Unbundled Payment/Remittance: The separation or breakdown of a payment or remittance into its individual components or charges.
UNECE: Abbreviation for United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, a regional commission that promotes economic cooperation and integration in Europe.
Uniform Code Council (UCC): Former name for GS1 US, an organization that develops and maintains global standards for supply chain management, including barcodes and electronic data interchange.
Uniform Product Code (UPC): A standardized barcode system used for identifying and tracking products in retail environments.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A web address that specifies the location of a resource on the internet.
Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act: Legislation that governs the issuance and transfer of warehouse receipts as negotiable instruments.
Unit Cost: The cost associated with producing or acquiring a single unit of a product or service.
Unit of Measure (UOM): The standard unit or measurement used to quantify a particular item or attribute.
Unit Train: A train consisting of a single type of railcar or container, typically carrying a large quantity of a specific commodity.
United Nations Standard Product and Service Code (UN/SPSC): A coding system used to classify and categorize products and services for procurement and supply chain purposes.
United States Railway Association: A former government agency established to oversee the restructuring and consolidation of bankrupt railroads in the United States.
Unitization: The process of combining individual items or components into a single unit or load for easier handling and transportation.
Unitize: To package or consolidate individual items or components into a single unit or load.
Unplanned Order: An order or demand that arises unexpectedly or outside of the regular planning or forecasting process.
UPC: Abbreviation for Uniform Product Code, a standardized barcode system used for product identification in retail environments.
Upsell: The practice of encouraging or persuading a customer to purchase a higher-priced or additional product or service.
Upside Production Flexibility: The ability of a production system or process to adapt or adjust to increased demand or changing requirements.
Upstream: Referring to activities or processes that occur earlier in the supply chain, closer to the source of raw materials or production.
Urban Mass Transportation Administration: Former name for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), a U.S. government agency responsible for public transportation policy and funding.
URL: Abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator, a web address that specifies the location of a resource on the internet.
UCP: Abbreviation for Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits, a set of rules and guidelines established by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) for letters of credit.
UFC: Abbreviation for Uniform Freight Classification, a system used for categorizing and classifying freight shipments for pricing and regulatory purposes.
ULCC: Abbreviation for Ultra Large Crude Carrier, a type of vessel designed to transport large quantities of crude oil.
Ullage: The empty space or unfilled portion within a container, typically referring to the gap between the liquid level and the top of a container.
UN/EDIFACT: Abbreviation for United Nations Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transport, a standard for electronic data interchange (EDI) between businesses.
Unclaimed Freight: Goods or cargo that have not been claimed by the intended recipient or owner.
Undercharge: To charge less than the correct or agreed-upon amount for a product or service.
Underway: Referring to a vessel or vehicle that is in motion or actively operating.
Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP): A set of rules and guidelines established by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) that govern the use of letters of credit in international trade.
Unit Load: A consolidated load of goods or materials that is treated as a single unit for handling and transportation purposes.
Unloading: The process of removing goods or cargo from a vehicle, vessel, or container.
U.S. Consular Invoice: A document required by some countries for importation purposes, providing detailed information about the goods being shipped.
USPPI - United States Principal Party of Interest: The party located in the United States that receives the primary benefit, monetary or otherwise, from an export transaction.
Valuation Charges: Fees or costs associated with assessing the value of goods or assets for financial or customs purposes.
Value Added: The increase in worth or utility that is created at each stage of a production or service process.
Value-Added Network (VAN): A network or service provider that offers value-added services such as secure data transmission and electronic commerce capabilities.
Value-Added Productivity Per Employee: A measure of the productivity or efficiency of employees in terms of the value they add to a company's products or services.
Value Adding/Non-Value Adding: Distinguishing between activities that directly contribute value to a product or service and those that do not.
Value Analysis: A systematic process of evaluating the components, functions, and costs of a product or service to identify areas for improvement and value enhancement.
Value Based Return (VPB): A financial metric that measures the return on investment based on the value created or added by a project or initiative.
Value Chain: The series of activities and processes involved in creating, producing, and delivering a product or service to customers.
Value Chain Analysis: An evaluation of the activities, processes, and resources within a value chain to identify opportunities for cost reduction, efficiency improvement, and value creation.
Value-of-Service Pricing: A pricing strategy that sets prices based on the perceived value or benefits that customers derive from a product or service.
Value Proposition: The unique combination of benefits, value, and advantages that a product, service, or business offers to customers.
VAN: Abbreviation for Value-Added Network, a network or service provider that offers value-added services for electronic data interchange (EDI) and communication.
Variable Cost: Costs that vary in direct proportion to the level of production or sales, such as raw materials or direct labor.
VBR: Abbreviation for Value-Based Return, a financial metric that measures the return on investment based on the value created or added by a project or initiative.
Velocity: The speed or rate at which goods, information, or processes move through a supply chain or business system.
Vendor: A supplier or seller of goods or services.
Vendor Code: A unique identifier or code assigned to a vendor for identification and tracking purposes.
Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI): A supply chain management approach in which a vendor or supplier takes responsibility for managing and replenishing a customer's inventory.
Vendor-Owned Inventory (VOI): Inventory that is owned and managed by a vendor or supplier but is located at the customer's premises or facility.
Vertical Hub/Vertical Portal: An online platform or website that focuses on a specific industry, sector, or specialized information.
Vertical Integration: The ownership or control of multiple stages or levels of a supply chain or production process by a single company.
Vessel: A large watercraft or ship used for transportation of goods or passengers by sea or inland waterways.
Vessel Manifest: A document that lists the cargo, passengers, and other details of a vessel's voyage.
Viral Marketing: A marketing strategy that relies on creating and spreading viral content or messages to generate brand awareness and attract customers.
Virtual Corporation: A networked or virtual organization that collaborates and operates across multiple companies or entities to achieve common goals.
Virtual Factory: A simulated or digital representation of a manufacturing facility or production process.
Visibility: The ability to track, monitor, and have real-time information or insights into supply chain processes, inventory, and activities.
Vision: The long-term strategic direction, goals, or aspirations of a company or organization.
VMI: Abbreviation for Vendor-Managed Inventory, a supply chain management approach in which a vendor or supplier takes responsibility for managing and replenishing a customer's inventory.
VOI: Abbreviation for Vendor-Owned Inventory, inventory that is owned and managed by a vendor or supplier but is located at the customer's premises or facility.
Voice Activated: Referring to technology or systems that can be controlled or operated through voice commands or speech recognition.
von Thunen's Belts: A theoretical model that describes how the spatial distribution of agricultural activities and land use is influenced by transportation costs and market demand.
Voyage: A journey or trip taken by a vessel or ship from one location to another.
VSA: Abbreviation for Voluntary Shipping Agreement, an agreement between multiple shipping companies to share capacity and coordinate services on specific trade routes or lanes.
Validation: The process of ensuring that data, information, or processes meet specific requirements, standards, or criteria.
Vanning: The process of loading goods or cargo into a container or vehicle for transportation.
Ventilated Container: A container designed with openings or ventilation systems to allow the flow of air or prevent the buildup of moisture or condensation.
Vessel Supplies for Immediate Exportation (VSIE): Supplies or goods that are loaded onto a vessel for exportation without being entered into the customs territory.
VISA: A document or endorsement issued by a country's government that allows an individual to enter, stay, or travel within that country for a specific purpose.
Viz.: An abbreviation for "videlicet," meaning "namely" or "that is to say."
VLCC: Abbreviation for Very Large Crude Carrier, a type of oil tanker designed to transport large quantities of crude oil.
VLFO - Vessel Load Free Out: A term used in shipping contracts to indicate that the loading and unloading of cargo onto a vessel is the responsibility of the shipper.
Voluntary Ship: A vessel that is not legally required to transport goods or cargo but does so based on a voluntary agreement or arrangement.
Wall-to-Wall Inventory: A comprehensive inventory count or assessment that includes all items or products within a specific location or facility.
Warehouse: A facility or building used for the storage, handling, and management of goods, materials, or inventory.
Warehousing: The process or activity of operating and managing a warehouse, including storage, inventory control, and distribution.
Warehouse Management System (WMS): Software or technology that facilitates the efficient management and control of warehouse operations, including inventory tracking, order fulfillment, and resource optimization.
Warranty Costs: Expenses incurred by a company to honor warranties and provide repairs or replacements for defective products or services.
Waterway Use Tax: A tax or fee imposed on the use of waterways, such as rivers or canals, for commercial transportation or shipping purposes.
Wave Picking: An order picking method in which multiple orders are grouped together into waves, and the picker retrieves items for multiple orders in a single pass through the warehouse.
Waybill: A document or record that provides details about a shipment, including the origin, destination, contents, and transportation instructions.
Weight Break: A specific weight threshold or range used in transportation pricing or cost calculations, often determining the rate or fee applied based on the weight of the shipment.
Weight Confirmation: The process of verifying or validating the weight of a shipment, typically done through weighing scales or other measuring devices.
Weight-Losing Raw Material: A raw material or substance that undergoes a reduction in weight during the production or manufacturing process.
Weight-Point Plan: A pricing structure or strategy that applies different rates or charges based on weight breakpoints or thresholds.
Weight Unit Qualifier: A code or indicator used to specify the unit of measurement for weight, such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg).
What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG): A term used to describe a user interface or document editing system that accurately displays the final output as it will appear to the user.
Wharfage: A fee or charge levied for the use of a wharf or dock for loading, unloading, or handling goods or cargo.
Wholesaler: A business or entity that purchases goods in large quantities from manufacturers or distributors and sells them to retailers or other businesses.
Wide-Area Network (WAN): A network that spans a large geographical area and connects multiple smaller networks or locations.
WIP: Abbreviation for Work in Process, referring to partially completed goods or products that are still undergoing production or assembly.
WMS: Abbreviation for Warehouse Management System, software or technology that facilitates the efficient management and control of warehouse operations.
Work in Process: Goods or products that are currently being worked on or undergoing production, but are not yet completed or ready for sale.
World Trade Organization (WTO): An international organization that deals with the global rules of trade between nations and promotes free trade.
World Wide Web (WWW): The system of interconnected documents and resources accessed through the internet.
WTO: Abbreviation for World Trade Organization, an international organization that deals with the global rules of trade between nations and promotes free trade.
WWW: Abbreviation for World Wide Web, the system of interconnected documents and resources accessed through the internet.
War Risk: A type of insurance coverage that protects against losses or damages caused by acts of war or civil unrest.
Warehouse Entry: The formal process of declaring and recording the arrival of goods or merchandise into a warehouse or storage facility.
Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Immediate Exportation (WDEX): The process of removing goods or cargo from a warehouse for immediate exportation or transportation.
Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation (WDT): The process of removing goods or cargo from a warehouse for transportation to another location or facility.
Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Exportation (WDT&E): The process of removing goods or cargo from a warehouse for exportation or transportation to another country.
Waybill (WB): A document or record that provides details about a shipment, including the origin, destination, contents, and transportation instructions.
Weight Cargo: Goods or cargo that are transported based on their weight, often subject to weight-based pricing or fees.
Weights and Measures/Measurement ton: A unit of weight used in transportation and commerce, typically equal to 2,000 pounds or 907.185 kilograms.
Well Car: A type of railcar or container flatcar that is specifically designed to accommodate shipping containers.
Wharf: A structure or platform built along the shore or waterfront for the loading and unloading of ships or boats.
Wharfage (Whfge.): A fee or charge levied for the use of a wharf or dock for loading, unloading, or handling goods or cargo.
WIBON: Abbreviation for "Whether In Berth or Not," indicating whether a vessel is in berth or docked at a specific location.
Windy Booking: A type of booking or reservation made for cargo or shipping services that is subject to changes or uncertainties.
Without Recourse: A term indicating that a financial transaction or agreement is made without any recourse or liability for the party providing funds or credit.
W.M. (W/M): Abbreviation for "Weight or Measurement," indicating that the rate or charge for transportation is based on either weight or measurement, whichever is higher.
WPA: Abbreviation for "With Particular Average," a type of marine insurance coverage that protects against partial losses or damages to the insured goods.
W.T.L.: Abbreviation for "Waiting Time Laytime," referring to the time allowed for loading or unloading operations in a shipping agreement.
WWD: Abbreviation for "Working Week Days," indicating the number of working days within a week, excluding weekends and public holidays.